• blood pressure;
  • blood temperature monitoring;
  • blood volume monitoring;
  • haemodialysis;
  • intra-dialytic hypotension


Intra-dialytic hypotension (IDH) is a common problem affecting haemodialysis patients. Its aetiology is complex and influenced by multiple patient and dialysis factors. IDH occurs when the normal cardiovascular response cannot compensate for volume loss associated with ultrafiltration, and is exacerbated by a myriad of factors including intra-dialytic fluid gains, cardiovascular disease, antihypertensive medications and the physiological demands placed on patients by conventional haemodialysis. The use of blood volume monitoring and blood temperature monitoring technologies is advocated as a tool to predict and therefore prevent episodes of IDH. We review the clinical utility of these technologies and summarize the current evidence of their effect on reducing the incidence of IDH in haemodialysis population.