• end-stage renal disease;
  • haematuria;
  • haemodialysis;
  • peritoneal dialysis;
  • transitional cell carcinoma


Aim:  This study examines the epidemiology of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population from Taiwan, the area with the highest incidence and prevalence of ESRD.

Methods:  A total of 98 out of 10 890 ESRD patients were referred for management of TCC between 2000 and 2008. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and patient mortality and tumour recurrence rates were analyzed.

Results:  TCC patients were aged 61.4 ± 10.2 years and 66.3% were female. The average time from initiation of dialysis to tumour detection was 51.2 ± 36.4 months. Hypertensive nephrosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis and unknown aetiology accounted for 25.5%, 20.4%, 22.4% and 31.6% of the causes of renal failure, respectively. The aetiology of renal failure for the 31.6% of patients was unclear, but chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis following long-term consumption of Chinese herbs (19.4%) or analgesic compounds (3.1%) was considered in some patients. Almost all (98.0%) patients presented with gross haematuria. Most TCC were in early stage (stage 0, 3.1%; stage I, 56.1%) during diagnosis. At the end of this study, 17 of 98 (17.3%) patients died. Multivariate Cox regression analysis found that age (odds ratio = 1.140, 95% confidence interval = 1.049–1.239, P = 0.002) and tumour pain (odds ratio = 0.234, 95% confidence interval = 0.057–0.961, P = 0.044) were significant risk factors for all-cause mortality. Furthermore, 35.7% of TCC recurred during follow up. The 5 year patient and tumour-free survival rates were 72.4% and 14.4%, respectively.

Conclusion:  The data shows that Taiwanese patients with ESRD had high incidence (0.9%) and recurrence (35.7%) of TCC.