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Low-dose valaciclovir and cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients
Article first published online: 13 JUL 2010
© 2011 The Authors. Nephrology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology
Volume 16, Issue 1, pages 113–117, January 2011
How to Cite
TOUSSAINT, N. D., TAN, M. B., NICHOLLS, K., WALKER, R. G. and COHNEY, S. J. (2011), Low-dose valaciclovir and cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. Nephrology, 16: 113–117. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2010.01379.x
- Issue published online: 23 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 13 JUL 2010
- Accepted manuscript online: 13 JUL 2010 12:00AM EST
- Accepted for publication 22 June 2010.Accepted manuscript online 13 July 2010.
- CMV immunoglobulin;
- cytomegalovirus disease;
- kidney transplantation;
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important cause of disease in renal transplant recipients. Prophylaxis is effective in reducing disease; however, the optimal regimen remains uncertain. We assessed the efficacy of low-dose valaciclovir (3 months) and intravenous CMV immunoglobulin in the prevention of CMV disease in CMV-negative recipients of kidneys from CMV-positive donors (D+/R−).
Methods: A single-centre, retrospective study examining the incidence of CMV disease and patient and graft survival in all patients transplanted between October 2000 and November 2004.
Results: Among 203 renal transplant recipients, 46 were D+/R− (22.7%) and received prophylaxis. Of the 203 recipients, 21 (10.3%) developed CMV disease over a four-year follow-up period. Within the D+/R− group, CMV disease occurred in 15.2% of patients at 6 months (7/46), and 21.7% at 4 years (10/46). Of the 10 D+/R− patients who developed CMV disease, six were inadvertently on a dose of valaciclovir below that dictated by protocol arising from a failure to increase dosage in parallel with improving recipient renal function. In the D+/R− recipients where the protocol was adhered to, the incidence of CMV disease was 5% (2/40) at 6 months, and 10% (4/40) at 4 years.
Conclusion: Low-dose valaciclovir with CMV immunoglobulin was as efficacious in preventing CMV disease as other published regimens, including those with full-dose valaciclovir and valganciclovir. There was a low incidence of CMV disease beyond 6 months. Outcomes could be improved by ensuring appropriate dose adjustment following changes in renal function.