Declaration of interests: All members of the Work Group were asked to submit a written record of possible conflicts of interest related to the screening of chronic kidney disease. No other conflicts of interest were declared.
Asian chronic kidney disease best practice recommendations: Positional statements for early detection of chronic kidney disease from Asian Forum for Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives (AFCKDI)
Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Nephrology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology
Volume 16, Issue 7, pages 633–641, September 2011
How to Cite
LI, P. K.-T., CHOW, K. M., MATSUO, S., YANG, C. W., JHA, V., BECKER, G., CHEN, N., SHARMA, S. K., CHITTINANDANA, A., CHOWDHURY, S., HARRIS, D. C.H., HOOI, L. S., IMAI, E., KIM, S., KIM, S. G., LANGHAM, R., PADILLA, B. S., TEO, B. W., TOGTOKH, A., WALKER, R. G., WANG, H. Y. and TSUKAMOTO, Y. (2011), Asian chronic kidney disease best practice recommendations: Positional statements for early detection of chronic kidney disease from Asian Forum for Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives (AFCKDI). Nephrology, 16: 633–641. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2011.01503.x
- Issue online: 25 AUG 2011
- Version of Record online: 25 AUG 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 JUL 2011 06:07AM EST
- Accepted for publication 4 July 2011.; Accepted manuscript online 20 July 2011.
- chronic kidney disease;
- high risk populations
AFCKDI RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EARLY DETECTION OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE
Patients with diabetes, hypertension
Those with family history of chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Individuals receiving potentially nephrotoxic drugs, herbs or substances or taking indigenous medicine
Patients with past history of acute kidney injury
Individuals older than 65 years
Spot urine sample for protein with standard urine Dipstick test (need a repeat confirmatory test if positive)
Dipstick for red blood cells (need confirmation by urine microscopy)
An estimate of glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine concentration
3. Frequency of screening
Screening frequency for targeted individuals should be yearly if no abnormality is detected on initial evaluation.
4. Who should perform the screening
Doctors, nurses, paramedical staff and other trained healthcare professionals
5. Intervention after screening
Patients detected to have CKD should be referred to primary care physicians with experience in management of kidney disease for follow up. A management protocol should be provided to the primary care physicians. Further referral to nephrologists for management will be based on the protocol together with clinical judgment of the primary care physicians with their assessment of the severity of CKD and the likelihood of progression.
6. Screening for cardiovascular disease risk
It is recommended that cardiovascular disease risk factors should be screened in all patients with CKD.