Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CKD patients.
Methods: A cross-section study of first-degree relatives of CKD patients was conducted between November 2007 and March 2009 in southern China. A total of 1187 first-degree relatives (494 male and 693 female; mean age 41.26 years) of 419 CKD patients (194 male and 225 female; mean age 32.10 years) were reviewed and tested for haematuria, albuminuria and reduced glomerular filtration rate. CKD risk factors, including age, gender, body mass index, hypertension and the causes of index case were also investigated. CKD was diagnosed according to the criteria of the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative.
Results: The prevalence of CKD in first-degree relatives of CKD patients was 29.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.1%–32.2%). After adjusting for all the potential confounders, older age, female gender, hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hyperuricaemia, hypertriglyceridemic, low level of high density lipoproteins, increased body mass index and nephrotoxic medications were independently associated with increased risk of CKD. Furthermore, relatives of index cases with chronic glomerulonephritis were at higher risk haematuria (ORs = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.45–3.10) compared with relatives of index cases with other kinds of renal diseases.
Conclusion: The first-degree relatives of CKD patients are at high risk of CKD, especially those relatives of CKD patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Screening in this high risk population might help to identify early CKD patients and make a proper intervention strategy to prevent the disease from quick progression.