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Keywords:

  • haemodialysis;
  • peripheral artery disease;
  • soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecular-1;
  • soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

ABSTRACT:

Aim:  Serum levels of soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), are elevated in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, the levels of these cell adhesion molecules in patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are unclear.

Method:  A total of 112 HD patients were included and PAD was diagnosed using the ankle-brachial index and Doppler ultrasound. Serum levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and MCP-1 were assayed using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

Results:  Out of 106 HD patients, 31 (27.7%) were diagnosed with PAD. After adjusting for risk factors, higher serum levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with PAD in HD patients, with an odds ratio of 5.3 (95% CI 3.3–65.5) and 2.7 (95% CI 1.2–21.8) respectively. Using sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 for diagnosis of PAD in HD patients, sVCAM-1 had a sensitivity of 72.4% and specificity of 62.3% for sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 had a sensitivity of 89.3% and a specificity of 40%. MCP-1 was not associated with PAD in HD patients. In addition, the fistula of HD patients with PAD had a lower A-V access flow.

Conclusion:  sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 was associated with higher risk of PAD in HD patients. Moreover, HD patients with PAD had a lower blood flow and lower A-V access flow. Our results showed that sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 may be used as screening markers for PAD in HD patients.