Abstract Abstract We examined psychiatric problems before and after kidney transplantation in a sample of 36 patients with end-stage renal failure. The prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders was 11.1|X% (4 of 36 cases) before the transplantation and 36.1|X% (13 of 36 cases) within 2 months after the transplantation. Except for a patient with schizophrenic disorder, no patients were found to have a psychiatric disorder from 2 to 6 months after the transplantation. In this study, we also examined anxieties and/or conflicts related to the transplantation using the synthetic house-tree-person (HTP) drawing test, a measure of mood states by means of a nonverbal expression method. The upper part of the tree trunk was not drawn in 25|X% of this sample (5 of 20 cases). In the HTP drawing tests immediately after the transplantation, however, trees missing the upper part of trunk were not drawn. Based on these findings, we discussed psychiatric problems in kidney transplantation.