Three-year follow up of women with and without borderline personality disorder: development of Cloninger's character in adolescence

Authors

  • KYOO SEOB HA md ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • SEOG JU KIM md ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • SOOK KYEONG YUNE ma ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • JEONG HYUN KIM md ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • JAEUK W. HWANG md ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • NA YOUNG LEE ma ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • YOUNG HOON SUNG md ,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • KELLEY YOST ABRAMS phd,

    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
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  • IN KYOON LYOO md , phd

    Corresponding author
    1. Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital and Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
      Dr In Kyoon Lyoo, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110–744, South Korea. Email: inkylyoo@yahoo.com
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Dr In Kyoon Lyoo, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongro-gu, Seoul 110–744, South Korea. Email: inkylyoo@yahoo.com

Abstract

Abstract  The purpose of the present study was to examine the developmental patterns of Cloninger's biogenetic character traits in subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Study subjects met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised; DSM-III-R) criteria for BPD without comorbid axis I or II disorders, as determined by the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised, Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R, and Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders. The BPD subjects and age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were initially interviewed for Cloninger's biogenetic characters and re-interviewed at an interval of 1 year for the following 3 years. There were significant differences in the developmental patterns of self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence between BPD and healthy comparison subjects (significant group by time interaction: repeated measures manova, F = 17.3, d.f. = 3,240, P < 0.001; F = 28.5, d.f. = 3,240, P < 0.001; F = 4.7, d.f. = 3,240, P < 0.01, respectively). The BPD subjects had less changes in character-related maturity with increasing age than did healthy comparison subjects. Post-hoc tests with Duncan's statistics revealed that subjects with BPD had significantly lower scores on self-directedness at all assessment time periods (P < 0.01) and lower scores on cooperativeness at the second-year and third-year follow-up assessments as compared to healthy comparison subjects (P < 0.01). The BPD subjects had a distinctively different developmental pattern of Cloninger's character compared to healthy comparison subjects. The character development of BPD patients was more fixed and immature than those of healthy comparison subjects.

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