Abstract The purpose of the present study was to evaluate obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD) in Turkish Children who had group A beta hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infections and those who had not. Thirty-one children and adolescents (the study group) were compared with 28 children and adolescents. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) scores were rated between study group and control group. The mean score, obsession and compulsion scores of CY-BOCS in the study group were significantly higher than they were in the control group (P < 0.05). The GABHS infections should be assessed in the etiology of OCD in children. Considering GABHS infections may help the treatment of OCD.