• 1
    Martens L, Addington J. The psychological well-being of family members of individuals with schizophrenia. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2001; 36: 128133.
  • 2
    Dyck DG, Short R, Vitaliano PP. Predictors of burden and infectious illness in schizophrenia caregivers. Psychosom. Med. 1999; 61: 411419.
  • 3
    Leff J, Vaughn C. Expressed Emotion in Families: Its Significance for Mental Illness. Guilford, New York, 1985.
  • 4
    Cobb S. Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosom. Med. 1976; 38: 300314.
  • 5
    Cohen S, Wills TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol. Bull. 1985; 98: 310357.
  • 6
    Kawachi I, Berkman LF. Social ties and mental health. J. Urban Health 2001; 78: 458467.
  • 7
    Bruce ML. Psychosocial risk factors for depressive disorders in late life. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 52: 175184.
  • 8
    Cooke DDML, Mulligan KT, Harrison MJ, Newman SP. Psychosocial interventions for caregivers of people with dementia: a systematic review. Aging Ment. Health 2001; 5: 120135.
  • 9
    Pharoah FM, Rathbone J, Mari JJ, Streiner D. Family intervention for schizophrenia. The Cochrance Database Systematic Review 2003; 4: CD000088.
  • 10
    Rudnick A, Kravetz S. The relation of social support-seeking to quality of life in schizophrenia. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 2001; 189: 258262.
  • 11
    Chen PS, Yang YK, Laio CH et al. The psychological well-being and associated factors of caregivers of outpatients with schizophrenia in Taiwan. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2004; 58: 600605.
  • 12
    Ko SY, Chen PS, Yang YK et al. The correlation between continous performance test and economic cost in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2003; 57: 361371.
  • 13
    Oldridge ML, Hughes IC. Psychological well-being in families with a member suffering from shcizophrenia: an investigation into long-standing problems. Br. J. Psychiatry 1992; 161: 249251.
  • 14
    Winefield HR, Harvey EJ. Determinants of psychological distress in relatives of people with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 1993; 19: 619625.
  • 15
    Cheng JJ, Ho H, Chang CJ, Lan SY, Hwu HG. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS): establishment and reliability study of a mandarin Chinese language version. Chinese Psychiatry 1996; 10: 251258.
  • 16
    Lin N, Ye X, Ensel WM. Social support and depressed mood: a structural analysis. J. Health Soc. Behav. 1999; 40: 344359.
  • 17
    Cheng TA, Williams P. The design and development of a screening questionnaire (CHQ) for use in community studies of mental disorders in Taiwan. Psychol. Med. 1986; 16: 145122.
  • 18
    Chen CS, Tsang HY, Chong MY, Tang TC. Validation of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12) in community elders. Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci. 2000; 16: 559565.
  • 19
    Cheng TA, Wu JT, Chong MY, Williams P. Internal consistency and factor structure of the Chinese Health Questionnaire. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 1990; 82: 304308.
  • 20
    Chong MY, Wilkinson G. Validation of 30- and 12-item versions of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) in patients admitted for general health screening. Psychol. Med. 1989; 19: 495505.
  • 21
    Yang YK, Yeh TL, Chen CC et al. Psychiatric morbidity and post-traumatic symptoms among earthquake victims in a primary care clinics. Gen. Hosp. Psychiatry 2003; 25: 253261.
  • 22
    Shumanker SA, Brownell A. Toward a theory of social support: closing conceptual gaps. J. Soc. Issues 1984; 40: 1136.
  • 23
    Berkman LF. The relationship of social networks and social support to morbidity and mortality. In: CohenS, SymeSL (eds). Social and Support and Health. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1985; 241262.
  • 24
    Cohen S, Underwood LG, Gottlieb BH. Social Support Measurement and Intervention: A Guide for Health and Social Scientist. Oxford University Press, New York, 2000.
  • 25
    Thoits PA. Social support as coping assistance. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1986; 54: 416423.
  • 26
    Lin N, Woelfel MW, Light SC. The buffering effect of social support subsequent to an important life event. J. Health Soc. Behav. 1985; 26: 247263.
  • 27
    Ystgaad M. Life stress, social support and psychological distress in late adolescence. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 1997; 32: 277283.
  • 28
    Olstad R, Sexton H, Sogaard AJ. The Finnmark Study. A prospective population study of the social support buffer hypothesis, specific stressors and mental distress. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2001; 36: 582589.