Abstract Psychotic features have been considered the main determinant of psychosocial function in schizophrenia. However, other variables are likely to affect dysfunction in these patients. The authors’ hypothesis is that personality traits in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia differ from traits found in the healthy population and may be associated with disability in this disorder. A total of 62 patients with schizophrenia were evaluated with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Psychotic features were measured with the help of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Disability was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS). A total of 43 healthy subjects were used as controls for personality measurements. Normative data for the study population was also used to evaluate results in patients. Patients with schizophrenia had higher levels of neuroticism (median in percentile 65) and lower levels of extraversion (median in percentile 25) than the healthy population. Results of the TPQ showed higher harm avoidance and lower reward dependence levels compared to the healthy population. After multiple regression tests, negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of disability in patients with schizophrenia. Neuroticism contributed independently to the DAS overall behavior and global judgement subscales scores (more negative symptoms and higher neuroticism resulted in worse functioning), but not to the social role subscale. Outpatients with chronic schizophrenia showed high levels of neuroticism, harm avoidance, and introversion. Neuroticism significantly contributes to the long-term deficits found in patients with schizophrenia.