Abstract The purpose of the present paper was to develop a cognitive training program for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and evaluate its effectiveness. Nine 60-min sessions focusing on the improvement of organizational strategies were given to 15 patients with OCD over a period of 5 weeks. The control group consisted of 15 age- and sex-matched patients also with OCD. The Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and Korean–California Verbal Learning Test were administered before and after cognitive training. Clinical symptoms were assessed with the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. The memory function in the treatment group improved and their clinical symptoms were alleviated after training, compared to those of the control group. Cognitive training of OCD patients not only improved their memory function, but also alleviated their clinical symptoms. Therefore, cognitive training, focusing on the improvement of organizational strategies, could be an effective treatment modality for patients with OCD.