• 1
    The UK ECT Review Group. Efficacy and safety of electroconvulsive therapy in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 2003; 361: 799808.
  • 2
    Ottosson JO. Effect of lidocaine on the seizure discharge in electroconvulsive therapy. Acta. Psychiatr. Scand. 1960; 35 (Suppl. 145): 732.
  • 3
    Krystal AD, Weiner RD, Coffey CE. The ictal EEG as a marker of adequate stimulus intensity with unilateral ECT. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 1995; 7: 295303.
  • 4
    Suppes T, Webb A, Carmody T et al. Is postictal electrical silence a predictor of response to electroconvulsive therapy? J. Affect. Disord. 1996; 41: 5558.
  • 5
    Nobler MS, Luber B, Moeller JR et al. Quantitative EEG during seizures induced by electroconvulsive therapy: relations to treatment modality and clinical features. I. Global analyses. J. ECT 2000; 16: 211228.
  • 6
    Perera TD, Luber B, Nobler MS, Prudic J, Anderson C, Sackeim HA. Seizure expression during electroconvulsive therapy: relationships with clinical outcome and cognitive side effects. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29: 813825.
  • 7
    Weiner RD. ECT and seizure threshold: effects of stimulus wave form and electrode placement. Biol. Psychiatry 1980; 15: 225241.
  • 8
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • 9
    Williams JB. A structured interview guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1988; 45: 742747.
  • 10
    Petrides G, Fink M. The ‘half-age’ stimulation strategy for ECT dosing. Convuls. Ther. 1996; 12: 138146.
  • 11
    Abrams R, Swartz C. Thymatron System 4 Instruction Manual, 8th edn, Revised, ed. Somatics LLC, Illinois, 2003.
  • 12
    Nobler MS, Sackeim HA, Solomou M, Luber B, Devanand DP, Prudic J. EEG manifestations during ECT: effects of electrode placement and stimulus intensity. Biol. Psychiatry 1993; 34: 321330.
  • 13
    Weiner RD, Krystal AD. EEG monitoring and management of electrically induced seizures. In : CoffeyCE (ed.). The Clinical Science of ECT. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, 1993; 93109.
  • 14
    McCall WV, Robinette GD, Hardesty D. Relationship of seizure morphology to the convulsive threshold. Convuls. Ther. 1996; 12: 147151.
  • 15
    Folkerts H. The ictal electroencephalogram as a marker for the efficacy of electroconvulsive therapy. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 1996; 246: 155164.
  • 16
    Hrdlicka M, Moran M, Vachutka J, Blatny M, Rozinkova J. EEG in electroconvulsive therapy: is more intensive paroxysmal activity associated with a higher therapeutic response? Neuropsychobiology 1996; 33: 138141.
  • 17
    Sackeim HA. The anticonvulsant hypothesis of the mechanisms of action of ECT: current status. J. ECT 1999; 15: 526.
  • 18
    Sackeim HA, Luber B, Katzman GP et al. The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on quantitative electroencephalograms. Relationship to clinical outcome. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1996; 53: 814824.
  • 19
    Segawa K, Azuma H, Sato K et al. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in depsression after electroconvulsife therapy. Psychiatry Res. 2006; 147 (2–3): 135143.
  • 20
    Krystal AD, Weiner RD, Coffey CE, McCall WV. Effect of ECT treatment number on the ictal EEG. Psychiatry Res. 1996; 62: 179189.
  • 21
    Krystal AD, Holsinger T, Weiner RD, Coffey CE. Prediction of the utility of a switch from unilateral to bilateral ECT in the elderly using treatment 2 ictal EEG indices. J. ECT 2000; 16: 327337.
  • 22
    Motreja S, Janakiramaiah N, Gangadhar BN, Dutt DN, Devaragudi TS, Subbakrishna DK. EEG seizure in bilateral ECT is different between low and high stimulus doses. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 1998; 29: 197199.
  • 23
    Loughnan T, McKenzie G, Leong S. Sevoflurane versus propofol for induction of anaesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized crossover trial. Anaesth. Intensive Care 2004; 32: 236240.
  • 24
    McCall WV, Farah A, Reboussin DM. Can we teach psychiatric residents to rate seizure regularity? Convuls. Ther. 1995; 11: 248252.
  • 25
    Azuma H, Hori S, Nakanishi M, Fujimoto S, Ichikawa N, Furukawa TA. An intervention to improve the interrater reliability of clinical EEG interpretations. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2003; 57: 485489.