Abstract Interleukin-1 (IL1) is an inflammatory cytokine and exerts neurodegenerative effects in the brain. Several studies have indicated that IL1 is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recent genetic studies have revealed that the IL1 gene complex (IL,1 alpha, IL1, beta and IL1 receptor antagonist) was associated with schizophrenia, although contradictory findings have also been reported. To assess whether the IL1 gene complex was implicated in vulnerability to schizophrenia, the authors conducted a case-control association study (416 patients with schizophrenia and 440 control subjects) for nine polymorphisms in Japanese subjects. The authors found no association between the IL1 gene complex polymorphisms and schizophrenia using either single-marker or haplotype analyses. The results of the present study suggest that the IL1 gene complex does not play a major role in conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Japanese population.