• 1
    Young T, Palta M, Dempsey J, Skatrud J, Weber S, Badr S. The occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing among middle-age adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993; 328: 12301235.
  • 2
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force. Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: Recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. Sleep 1999; 22: 667689.
  • 3
    Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep 1991; 14: 540545.
  • 4
    Johns MW. Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea: The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Chest 1993; 103: 3036.
  • 5
    Giudici S, Farmer W, Dollinger A, Andrada T, Torrington K, Rajagopal K. Lack of predictive value of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in patients after uvuloplathopharyngoplasty. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 2000; 109: 646649.
  • 6
    Chervin RD, Aldrich MS. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale may not reflect objective measure of sleepiness or sleep apnea. Neurology 1999; 52: 125131.
  • 7
    Sangal RB, Sangal JM, Belisle C. Subjective and objective indices of sleepiness (ESS and MWT) are not equally useful in patients with sleep apnea. Clin. Electroencephalogr. 1999; 30: 7375.
  • 8
    Olson LG, Cole MF, Ambrogetti A. Correlations among Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores, multiple sleep latency tests and psychological symptoms. J. Sleep Res. 1998; 7: 248253.
  • 9
    Kapur VK, Baldwin CM, Resnick HE, Gottlieb DJ, Nieto FL. Sleepiness in patients with moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep 2005; 28: 472477.
  • 10
    Leng PH, Low SY, Hsu A, Chong SF. The clinical predictors of sleepiness correlated with the multiple sleep latency test in an Asian Singapore population. Sleep 2003; 26: 878881.
  • 11
    Gottlieb DJ, Whitney CW, Bonekat WH et al. Relation of sleepiness to respiratory disturbance index. The Sleep Heart Health Study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 159: 502507.
  • 12
    Chervin RD, Aldrich MS. Characteristics of apnea and hypopneas during sleep and relation to excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep 1998; 21: 799806.
  • 13
    Dinges DF, Pack F, Williams K et al. Cumulative sleepiness, mood disturbance, and psychomotor vigilance performance decrements during a week of sleep restricted to 4–5 hours per night. Sleep 1997; 20: 267277.
  • 14
    Carskadon MA, Roth T. Sleep restriction. In: MonkTH (ed.). Sleep, Sleepiness and Performance. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; 155167.
  • 15
    Banks S, Barnes M, Tarquinio N, Pierce RJ, Lack LC, McEvoy RD. Factors associated with maintenance of wakefulness test mean sleep latency in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea and normal subjects. J. Sleep Res. 2004; 13: 7178.
  • 16
    Punjabi NM, O'Hearn DJ, Neubauer DN et al. Modeling hypersomnolence in sleep-disordered breathing. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 159: 17031709.
  • 17
    Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF III, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res. 1989; 28: 193213.
  • 18
    Hathaway SR, McKinley JD. A multiphasic personality schedule (Minnesota): 1. Construction of the schedule. J. Psychol. 1940; 10: 249254.
  • 19
    Graham JR. The MMPI: A Practical Guide. Oxford University Press, New York, 1977.
  • 20
    Zung WW. A self-rating depression scale. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1965; 12: 6370.
  • 21
    Rechtschaffen A, Kales A. A Manual of Standardized Terminology, Techniques and Scoring System for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 1968.
  • 22
    The Atlas Task Force. ASDA Report EEG arousals: Scoring rules and examples. Sleep 1992; 15: 173184.
  • 23
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual, 2nd edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester, IL, 2005.
  • 24
    WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004; 363: 157163.
  • 25
    Zung WW. From art to science: The diagnosis and treatment of depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1973; 29: 328337.
  • 26
    Goncalves MA, Paiva T, Ramos E, Guilleminault C. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, sleepiness, and quality of life. Chest 2004; 125: 20912096.
  • 27
    Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Lin HM, Calhoun SL, Vela-Bueno A, Kales A. Excessive daytime sleepiness in a general population sample: The role of the sleep apnea, age, obesity, diabetes and depression. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2005; 90: 45104515.
  • 28
    Bixler EO, Vgontzas AN, Have TT, Tyson K, Kales A. Effect of age on sleep apnea in men. I. Prevalence and severity. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998; 157: 144148.
  • 29
    Krieger J, Sforza E, Boudewijns A, Zamagni M, Petiau C. Respiratory effort during obstructive sleep apnea: Role of age and sleep state. Chest 1997; 112: 875884.
  • 30
    Philip P, Taillard J, Sagaspe P et al. Age, performance and sleep deprivation. J. Sleep Res. 2004; 13: 105110.
  • 31
    Ohida T, Kamal AM, Uchiyama M et al. The influence of lifestyle and health status factors on sleep loss among the Japanese general population. Sleep 2001; 24: 333338.
  • 32
    Akashiba T, Kawahara S, Akahoshi T et al. Relationship between quality of life and mood or depression in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 2002; 122: 861865.
  • 33
    Aikens JE, Mendelson WB. A matched comparison of MMPI responses in patients with primary snoring or obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep 1999; 22: 355359.
  • 34
    Pillar G, Lavie P. Psychiatry symptoms in sleep apnea syndrome: Effects of gender and respiratory disturbance index. Chest 1998; 114: 697703.
  • 35
    Shepertycky MR, Banno K, Kryger MH. Differences between men and women in the clinical presentation of patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep 2005; 3: 309314.
  • 36
    Kales A, Caldwell AB, Cadieux RJ, Vera-Bueno A, Ruch LG, Mayes SD. Severe obstructive sleep apnea: Associated psychopathology and psychosocial consequences. J. Chronic Dis. 1985; 38: 427434.
  • 37
    Beutler LE, Ware JC, Karacan I, Thornby JI. Differentiating psychological characteristics of patients with sleep apnea and narcolepsy. Sleep 1981; 4: 3947.
  • 38
    Ramos Platon MJ, Espinar Sierra J. Changes in psychological symptoms in sleep apnea patients after treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Int. J. Neurosci. 1992; 62: 173195.
  • 39
    Kim H, Young T. Subjective daytime sleepiness: Dimensions and correlates in the general population. Sleep 2005; 28: 625634.
  • 40
    Black JE, Hirshkowitz M. Modafinil for treatment of residual excessive sleepiness in nasal continuous positive airway pressure-treated obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Sleep 2005; 28: 464471.