Correlates of the categories of adolescent attachment styles: Perceived rearing, family function, early life events, and personality

Authors

  • Nao Tanaka phd,

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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  • Chieko Hasui ma ,

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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  • Masayo Uji md , phd,

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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  • Hidetoshi Hiramura md ,

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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  • Zi Chen md ,

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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  • Noriko Shikai ma ,

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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  • Toshinori Kitamura frcpsych

    1. Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan
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Toshinori Kitamura, FRCPsych, Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Sciences), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 Japan. Email: kitamura@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Aims:  To identify the psychosocial correlates of adolescents.

Methods:  Unmarried university students (n = 4226) aged 18–23 years were examined in a questionnaire survey.

Results:  Four clusters of people (indifferent, secure, fearful, and preoccupied) identified by cluster analysis were plotted in 2-D using discriminant function analysis with the first function (father's and mother's Care, Cooperativeness, and family Cohesion on the positive end and Harm Avoidance and father's and mother's Overprotection on the negative end) representing the Self-model and the second function (Reward Dependence and experience of Peer Victimization on the positive end and Self-directedness on the negative end) representing the Other model.

Conclusions:  These findings partially support Bartholomew's notion that adult attachment is based on the good versus bad representations of the self and the other and that it is influenced by psychosocial environments experienced over the course of development.

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