New perspectives on techniques for the clinical psychiatrist: Brain stimulation, chronobiology and psychiatric brain imaging


*Raffaella Zanardi, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Vita-Salute University San Raffaele Hospital, Via Stamira d'Ancona, 20 Milan 20127, Italy. Email:


This review summarizes a scientific dialogue between representatives in non-pharmacological treatment options of affective disorders. Among the recently introduced somatic treatments for depression those with most evidenced efficacy will be discussed. The first part of this article presents current opinions about the clinical applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. The second part explains the most relevant uses of chronobiology in mood disorders, while the last part deals with the main perspectives on brain imaging techniques in psychiatry. The aim was to bridge gaps between the research evidence and clinical decisions, and reach an agreement on several key points of chronobiological and brain stimulation techniques, as well as on relevant objectives for future research.