• 1
    Malec JF, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE. Chapter 2. Neuropsychology and normal aging: The clinician's perspective. In : ParkRW, ZecRF, WilsonRS (eds). Neuropsychology of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias. Oxford Press, New York, 1993; 81111.
  • 2
    Ardila A. Normal aging increases cognitive heterogeneity: Analysis of dispersion in WAIS-III scores across age. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 2007; 22: 10031011.
  • 3
    Benton AL, Sivan AB, Hamsher K, Varney NR, Spreen O. Contributions to Neuropsychological Assessment: A Clinical Manual, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.
  • 4
    Campo P, Morales M. Reliability and normative data for the Benton Visual Form Discrimination Test. Clin. Neuropsychol. 2003; 17: 220225.
  • 5
    Machulda MM, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE et al. Mayo's older Americans normative studies: Visual form discrimination and copy trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 2007; 29: 377384.
  • 6
    Sliwinski M, Lipton RB, Buschke H, Stewart W. The effects of preclinical dementia on estimates of normal cognitive functioning in aging. J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 1996; 51: 217225.
  • 7
    Petersen RC, Smith G.E, Waring SC, Ivnik RJ, Tangolos EG, Kokman E. Mild cognitive impairment: Clinical characterization and outcome. Arch. Neurol. 1999; 56: 303308.
  • 8
    Morris JC, Storandt M, Miller JP et al. Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease. Arch. Neurol. 2001; 58: 397405.
  • 9
    Gauthier S, Reisberg B, Zaudig M et al. Mild cognitive impairment. Lancet 2006; 367: 12621270.
  • 10
    Storandt M, Hill RD. Very mild senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch. Neurol. 1989; 46: 383386.
  • 11
    Hashimoto R, Meguro K, Yamaguchi S et al. Executive dysfunction can explain word-list learning disability in very mild Alzheimer's disease. Psychiatr. Clin. Neurosci. 2004; 58: 5460.
  • 12
    Kaskie B, Storandt M. Visuospatial deficit in dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch. Neurol. 1995; 52: 422425.
  • 13
    Meguro K, Ishii H, Yamaguchi S et al. Prevalence of dementia and dementing diseases in Japan. The Tajiri Project. Arch. Neurol. 2002; 59: 11091114.
  • 14
    Meguro K, Ishii H, Yamaguchi S et al. Prevalence and cognitive performances of clinical dementia rating 0.5 and mild cognitive impairment in Japan. The Tajiri project. Alzheimer Dis. Assoc. Disord. 2004; 18: 310.
  • 15
    Hughes CP, Berg L, Danziger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL. A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br. J. Psychiatry 1982; 140: 566572.
  • 16
    Morris JC. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): Current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993; 43: 24122414.
  • 17
    Morris JC, McKeel DW, Storandt M et al. Very mild Alzheimer's disease: Informant-based clinical, psychometric, and pathologic distinction from normal aging. Neurology 1991; 41: 469478.
  • 18
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC, 1994.
  • 19
    Lezak MD, Howieson DB, Loring DW. Neuropsychological Assessment, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, New York, 2004.
  • 20
    Meyers JE, Meyers KR. Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa, 1995.
  • 21
    Lichtenberg PA, Millis SR, Nanna M. Use of the visual form discrimination test with geriatric urban medical inpatients. Clin. Neuropsychologist 1994; 8: 462465.
  • 22
    Moses JA. Factor structure of Benton's tests of visual retention, visual construction, and visual form discrimination. Arch. Clin. Neuropsychol. 1986; 1: 147156.
  • 23
    Moses JA. Replicated factor structure of Benton's tests of visual retention, visual construction, and visual form discrimination. Intervent. J. Clin. Neuropsychol. 1989; 11: 3037.
  • 24
    Wechsler D. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised. Psychological Corporation, New York, 1981.
  • 25
    Berry DTR, Allen RS, Schmitt FA. Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: Psychometric characteristic in a geriatric sample. Clin. Neuropsychologist 1991; 5: 143153.
  • 26
    Kasai M, Meguro K, Hashimoto R et al. Non-verbal learning is impaired in very mild Alzheimer's disease (CDR 0.5): Normative data from the learning version of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 2006; 60: 139146.
  • 27
    Kasai M, Ishizaki J, Meguro K. Alzheimer's patients do not show left unilateral spatial neglect but exhibit peripheral inattention and simplification. Dement. Neuropsychol. 2007; 1: 374380.
  • 28
    Perry RJ, Hodges JR. Attention and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease: A clinical review. Brain 1999; 122: 383404.