SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Kendall-tackett KA, Williams LM, Finkelhor D. Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychol. Bull. 1993; 113: 164180.
  • 2
    Molnar BE, Buka SL, Kessler RC. Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Am. J. Public Health 2001; 91: 753760.
  • 3
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn. DSM-IV. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • 4
    Harvey AG, Bryant RA, Dang ST. Autobiographical memory in acute stress disorder. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1998; 66: 500506.
  • 5
    McNally RJ, Lasko NB, Macklin ML, Pitman RK. Autobiographical memory disturbance in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav. Res. Ther. 1995; 33: 619630.
  • 6
    Vasterling JJ, Brailey K, Constans JI, Sutker PB. Attention and memory dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychology 1998; 12: 125133.
  • 7
    Vasterling JJ, Duke LM, Brailey K, Constans JI, Allain AN Jr, Sutker PB. Attention, learning, and memory performances and intellectual resources in Vietnam veterans: PTSD and no disorder comparisons. Neuropsychology 2002; 16: 514.
  • 8
    Golier JA, Yehuda R, Lupien SJ, Harvey PD, Grossman R, Elkin A. Memory performance in Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 2002; 159: 16821688.
  • 9
    Bremner JD. Does stress damage the brain? Biol. Psychiatry 1999; 45: 797805.
  • 10
    Bremner JD. Structural changes in the brain in depression and relationship to symptom recurrence. CNS Spectr. 2002; 7: 129130, 135139.
  • 11
    Bremner JD. Traumatic stress: Effects on the brain. Dialogues Clin. Neurosci. 2006; 8: 445461.
  • 12
    Fergusson DM, Woodward LJ, Horwood LJ. Risk factors and life processes associated with the onset of suicidal behaviour during adolescence and early adulthood. Psychol. Med. 2000; 30: 2339.
  • 13
    Friedman S, Smith L, Fogel D et al. The incidence and influence of early traumatic life events in patients with panic disorder: A comparison with other psychiatric outpatients. J. Anxiety Disord. 2002; 16: 259272.
  • 14
    Carpenter LL, Tyrka AR, McDougle CJ et al. Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-releasing factor and perceived early-life stress in depressed patients and healthy control subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004; 29: 777784.
  • 15
    Mello AA, Mello MF, Carpenter LL, Price LH. Update on stress and depression: The role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr. 2003; 25: 231238.
  • 16
    Cohen RA, Grieve S, Hoth KF et al. Early life stress and morphometry of the adult anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nuclei. Biol. Psychiatry 2006; 59: 975982.
  • 17
    Heim C, Owens MJ, Plotsky PM, Nemeroff CB. Persistent changes in corticotropin-releasing factor systems due to early life stress: Relationship to the pathophysiology of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 1997; 33: 185192.
  • 18
    Kaufman J, Plotsky PM, Nemeroff CB, Charney DS. Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: Clinical implications. Biol. Psychiatry 2000; 48: 778790.
  • 19
    Sapolsky RM, Uno H, Rebert CS, Finch CE. Hippocampal damage associated with prolonged glucocorticoid exposure in primates. J. Neurosci. 1990; 10: 28972902.
  • 20
    Brunson KL, Eghbal-Ahmadi M, Bender R, Chen Y, Baram TZ. Long-term, progressive hippocampal cell loss and dysfunction induced by early-life administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone reproduce the effects of early-life stress. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2001; 98: 885661.
  • 21
    Moghaddam B. Stress activation of glutamate neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex: Implications for dopamine-associated psychiatric disorders. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 51: 775787.
  • 22
    Gould E, McEwen BS, Tanapat P, Galea LA, Fuchs E. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree shrew is regulated by psychosocial stress and NMDA receptor activation. J. Neurosci. 1997; 17: 24922498.
  • 23
    Li C, Maier DL, Cross B, Doherty JJ, Christian EP. Fimbria-fornix lesions compromise the induction of long-term potentiation at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in the rat in vivo. J. Neurophysiol. 2005; 93: 30013006.
  • 24
    Duric V, McCarson KE. Hippocampal neurokinin-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression is decreased in rat models of pain and stress. Neuroscience 2005; 133: 9991006.
  • 25
    Harvey BH, Naciti C, Brand L, Stein DJ. Endocrine, cognitive and hippocampal/cortical 5HT 1A/2A receptor changes evoked by a time-dependent sensitisation (TDS) stress model in rats. Brain Res. 2003; 983: 97107.
  • 26
    Sanchez MM, Hearn EF, Do D, Rilling JK, Herndon JG. Differential rearing affects corpus callosum size and cognitive function of rhesus monkeys. Brain Res. 1998; 812: 3849.
  • 27
    De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Clark DB et al. A.E. Bennett research award. Developmental traumatology. Part II: Brain development. Biol. Psychiatry 1999; 45: 12711284.
  • 28
    De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Shifflett H et al. Brain structures in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder: A sociodemographically matched study. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 52: 10661078.
  • 29
    Gurvits TV, Shenton ME, Hokama H et al. Magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal volume in chronic, combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 1996; 40: 10911099.
  • 30
    Bremner JD, Randall P, Scott TM et al. MRI-based measurement of hippocampal volume in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 1995; 152: 973981.
  • 31
    Bremner JD, Randall P, Vermetten E et al. Magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of hippocampal volume in posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood physical and sexual abuse: A preliminary report. Biol. Psychiatry 1997; 41: 2332.
  • 32
    Villarreal G, Hamilton DA, Petropoulos H et al. Reduced hippocampal volume and total white matter volume in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 52: 119125.
  • 33
    Villarreal G, Hamilton DA, Graham DP et al. Reduced area of the corpus callosum in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2004; 131: 227235.
  • 34
    Rauch SL, Shin LM, Segal E et al. Selectively reduced regional cortical volumes in post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroreport 2003; 14: 913916.
  • 35
    Yamasue H, Kasai K, Iwanami A et al. Voxel-based analysis of MRI reveals anterior cingulate gray-matter volume reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder due to terrorism. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 2003; 100: 90399043.
  • 36
    Corbo V, Clement MH, Armony JL, Pruessner JC, Brunet A. Size versus shape differences: Contrasting voxel-based and volumetric analyses of the anterior cingulate cortex in individuals with acute posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2005; 58: 119124.
  • 37
    Woodward SH, Kaloupek DG, Streeter CC et al. Hippocampal volume, PTSD, and alcoholism in combat veterans. Am. J. Psychiatry 2006; 163: 674681.
  • 38
    O'Keefe J, Nadel L. The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford University Press, England, 1978.
  • 39
    Squire LR. Memory and the hippocampus: A synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychol. Rev. 1992; 99: 195231.
  • 40
    Eldridge LL, Knowlton BJ, Furmanski CS, Bookheimer SY, Engel SA. Remembering episodes: A selective role for the hippocampus during retrieval. Nat. Neurosci. 2000; 3: 11491152.
  • 41
    Wheeler ME, Buckner RL. Functional-anatomic correlates of remembering and knowing. NeuroImage 2004; 21: 13371349.
  • 42
    Sapolsky RM. Glucocorticoids and hippocampal atrophy in neuropsychiatric disorders. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2000; 57: 925935.
  • 43
    Bremner JD. Long-term effects of childhood abuse on brain and neurobiology. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. Clin. N. Am. 2003; 12: 271292.
  • 44
    Bremner JD, Narayan M. The effects of stress on memory and the hippocampus throughout the life cycle: Implications for childhood development and aging. Dev. Psychopathol. 1998; 10: 871885.
  • 45
    Carrion VG, Weems CF, Eliez S et al. Attenuation of frontal asymmetry in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2001; 50: 943951.
  • 46
    De Bellis MD, Hall J, Boring AM, Frustaci K, Moritz G. A pilot longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2001; 50: 305309.
  • 47
    Tupler LA, De Bellis MD. Segmented hippocampal volume in children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2006; 59: 523529.
  • 48
    Carrion VG, Weems CF, Reiss AL. Stress predicts brain changes in children: A pilot longitudinal study on youth stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the hippocampus. Pediatrics 2007; 119: 509516.
  • 49
    Gogtay N, Nugent TF 3rd, Herman DH et al. Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development. Hippocampus 2006; 16: 664672.
  • 50
    De Bellis MD, Baum AS, Birmaher B et al. A.E. Bennett research award. Developmental traumatology. Part I: Biological stress systems. Biol. Psychiatry 1999; 45: 12591270.
  • 51
    Kaufman J. Depressive disorders in maltreated children. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1991; 30: 257265.
  • 52
    Hart J, Gunnar M, Cicchetti D. Altered neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children related to symptoms of depression. Dev. Psychopathol. 1996; 8: 201214.
  • 53
    Carrion VG, Weems CF, Ray RD, Glaser B, Hessl D, Reiss AL. Diurnal salivary cortisol in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 51: 575582.
  • 54
    McEwen BS, De Kloet ER, Rostene W. Adrenal steroid receptors and actions in the nervous system. Physiol. Rev. 1986; 66: 11211188.
  • 55
    Sapolsky RM. Stress, glucocorticoids, and damage to the nervous system: The current state of confusion. Science 1996; 1: 119.
  • 56
    Bremne JD, Vermetten E. Stress and development: Behavioral and biological consequences. Dev. Psychopathol. 2001; 13: 473489.
  • 57
    Stratakis CA, Chrousos GP. Neuroendocrinology and pathophysiology of the stress system. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1995; 771: 118.
  • 58
    Pacak K, Palkovits M, Kvetnansky R, Yadid G, Kopin IJ, Goldstein DS. Effects of various stressors on in vivo norepinephrine release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and on the pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1995; 771: 115130.
  • 59
    Teicher MH, Andersen SL, Polcari A, Anderson CM, Navalta CP, Kim DM. The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2003; 27: 3344.
  • 60
    Pandya DN, Seltzer B. The topography of commisural fibers. In : LeporeF, PtitoM, JasperHH (eds). Two Hemispheres – One Brain: Functions of the Corpus Callosum, Vol. 17. Alan R Liss, New York; 4774.
  • 61
    Karl A, Schaefer M, Malta LS, Dorfel D, Rohleder N, Werner A. A meta-analysis of structural brain abnormalities in PTSD. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2006; 30: 10041031.
  • 62
    Jackowski AP, Douglas-Palumberi H, Jackowski M et al. Corpus callosum in maltreated children with posttraumatic stress disorder: Aa diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Res. 2008; 162: 256261.
  • 63
    Denenberg VH, Yutzey DA. Hemispheric laterality behavioral asymmetry, and the effects of early experience in rats. In : ClickSD (ed.). Cerebral lateralization in nonhuman species. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1985; 109133.
  • 64
    Pujol J, Vendrell P, Junque C, Marti-Vilalta JL, Capdevila A. When does human brain development end? Evidence of corpus callosum growth up to adulthood. Ann. Neurol. 1993; 34: 7175.
  • 65
    Giedd JN, Rumsey JM, Castellanos FX et al. A quantitative MRI study of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 1996; 91: 274280.
  • 66
    Keshavan MS, Diwadkar VA, DeBellis M et al. Development of the corpus callosum in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Life Sci. 2002; 70: 19091922.
  • 67
    Keshavan MS, Diwadkar VA, Harenski K, Rosenberg DR, Sweeney JA, Pettegrew JW. Abnormalities of the corpus callosum in first episode, treatment naive schizophrenia. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 2002; 72: 757760.
  • 68
    Teicher MH, Dumont NL, Ito Y, Vaituzis C, Giedd JN, Andersen SL. Childhood neglect is associated with reduced corpus callosum area. Biol. Psychiatry 2004; 56: 8085.
  • 69
    De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS. Sex differences in brain maturation in maltreatment-related pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2003; 27: 103117.
  • 70
    De Bellis MD, Keshavan MS, Frustaci K et al. Superior temporal gyrus volumes in maltreated children and adolescents with PTSD. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 51: 544552.
  • 71
    De Bellis MD, Kuchibhatla M. Cerebellar volumes in pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol. Psychiatry 2006; 60: 697703.
  • 72
    Pandya DN. Anatomy of the auditory cortex. Rev. Neurol 1995; 151: 486494.
  • 73
    Richert KA, Carrion VG, Karchemskiy A, Reiss AL. Regional differences of the prefrontal cortex in pediatric PTSD: An MRI study. Depress. Anxiety 2006; 23: 1725.
  • 74
    Woodward SH, Kaloupek DG, Streeter CC et al. Brain, skull, and cerebrospinal fluid volumes in adult posttraumatic stress disorder. J. Trauma. Stress 2007; 20: 763774.
  • 75
    Smith MA, Makino S, Kim SY, Kvetnansky R. Stress increases brain-derived neurotropic factor messenger ribonucleic acid in the hypothalamus and pituitary. Endocrinology 1995; 136: 37433750.
  • 76
    Lauder JM. Neurotransmitters as morphogens. Progr. Brain Res. 1988; 73: 365387.
  • 77
    Todd RD. Neural development is regulated by classical neurotransmitters: Dopamine D2 receptor stimulation enhances neurite outgrowth. Biol. Psychiatry 1992; 31: 794807.
  • 78
    Dunlop SA, Archer MA, Quinlivan JA, Beazley LD, Newnham JP. Repeated prenatal corticosteroids delay myelination in the ovine central nervous system. J. Matern. Fetal Med. 1997; 6: 309313.