Authors' contributions: Study Design,
Low level of parental bonding might be a risk factor among women with prolonged depression: A preliminary investigation
Article first published online: 23 SEP 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Volume 63, Issue 6, pages 721–729, December 2009
How to Cite
Handa, H., Ito, A., Tsuda, H., Ohsawa, I. and Ogawa, T. (2009), Low level of parental bonding might be a risk factor among women with prolonged depression: A preliminary investigation. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63: 721–729. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.02018.x
- Issue published online: 19 NOV 2009
- Article first published online: 23 SEP 2009
- Received 5 February 2008, revised 24 May 2009, accepted 6 July 2009.
- parental bonding instrument;
- risk factors;
- sex difference
Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the effect of parenting by the father and mother on outcomes for depression may be different between male and female subjects.
Methods: A total of 115 patients were involved in this investigation: 74 had states of depression that continued for more than 2 years, and 41 had symptoms that remitted within 4 months. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was used to test for gender differences in the PBI score, the level of education, and the age at which the depression began, using an unpaired t-test.
Results: It is suggested that female patients with low paternal care and low levels of education have a higher likelihood of showing symptoms of prolonged depression in a primary episode. No relationship was found among prolongation of depression, educational level, and parental care in male patients. Furthermore, comparing the PBI quadrants established by Parker showed that female patients who were exposed to paternal care as ‘Affectionless Control’, had a tendency towards a higher risk of prolonged depression than female patients who received ‘Optimal Parenting’.
Conclusion: Especially in female patients, the prolongation of depression is likely a result of low levels of paternal care and low education.