Low level of parental bonding might be a risk factor among women with prolonged depression: A preliminary investigation

Authors

  • Hiroko Handa md ,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University,
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    • A

      Authors' contributions: Study Design,

    • B

      Data Collection,

    • D

      Data Interpretation,

    • E

      Manuscript Preparation,

    • F

      Literature Search.

  • Akinori Ito md , phd,

    1. Hisaya Odori Ito Clinic, Nagoya and
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    • B

      Data Collection,

  • Hitoshi Tsuda md , phd,

    1. Department of Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University,
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    • A

      Authors' contributions: Study Design,

    • D

      Data Interpretation,

  • Isao Ohsawa md , phd,

    1. Department of Health Science, Faculty of Psychological and Physical Science, Aichi Gakuin University, Nisshin, Japan
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    • A

      Authors' contributions: Study Design,

    • C

      Statistical Analysis,

    • D

      Data Interpretation,

  • Toyoaki Ogawa md , phd

    1. Department of Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University,
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    • A

      Authors' contributions: Study Design,

    • D

      Data Interpretation,


*Hiroko Handa, MD, Department of Psychopathology and Psychotherapy Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Frou-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601, Japan. Email: i.yagotoclinic@gmail.com

Abstract

Aims:  The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the effect of parenting by the father and mother on outcomes for depression may be different between male and female subjects.

Methods:  A total of 115 patients were involved in this investigation: 74 had states of depression that continued for more than 2 years, and 41 had symptoms that remitted within 4 months. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was used to test for gender differences in the PBI score, the level of education, and the age at which the depression began, using an unpaired t-test.

Results:  It is suggested that female patients with low paternal care and low levels of education have a higher likelihood of showing symptoms of prolonged depression in a primary episode. No relationship was found among prolongation of depression, educational level, and parental care in male patients. Furthermore, comparing the PBI quadrants established by Parker showed that female patients who were exposed to paternal care as ‘Affectionless Control’, had a tendency towards a higher risk of prolonged depression than female patients who received ‘Optimal Parenting’.

Conclusion:  Especially in female patients, the prolongation of depression is likely a result of low levels of paternal care and low education.

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