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Aims: This paper examines the relationship between observational behavior and the observers' result assumptions, using a contained diagram that includes significant non-verbal information, such as gestures. The ability of care workers to assess a patient's mental status on the basis of non-verbal information would be considered an important skill necessary to understanding patient condition.
Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects were asked to take a test exploring two types of psychological status, and their eye movements were monitored during testing. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships among eye movements, individual personalities, and test results.
Results: In stimulus 1, the neuroticism of the personality was determined. In stimulus 2, openness was determined in the range of eye movement. There is a relationship between the total length of eye fixation time and the answer time at the eye fixation point. Although there was no significant influence found in stimulus 1, the openness still tended to influence the eye fixation point.
Conclusions: The eye fixation point increased among those people with high openness scores. It was theorized that they attempted to obtain information from the stimulus being provided.
THE ABILITY TO interpret non-verbal information, including facial expressions and gestures, to determine someone's state of mind is a very important skill in mental health-care settings. It is often difficult for mentally ill people to verbally express their condition. Therefore, professionals must provide patients with an environment that allows patients to more easily express their condition; professionals must also gain insight into different conditions and desires through observation. The observation act has two stages. In the first stage, perception comes from the sensory feeling receptor. Alternatively, the recognition in the second stage involves processing the perceived information and deriving meaning from it.
With regard to the first phase, the sensory receptor refers to the five human senses: sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste. People always communicate with each other, not only with words, but also by sending and receiving information through the five senses.1 Specifically, when two people communicate, words compose only 35% of their exchange. That is, 65% of human communication takes place through non-verbal information, such as affect, gestures, speech pace, and other behavior.2
This paper therefore focused on the visual information that becomes the center of perception for non-verbal information. A large and growing body of literature has reported on people's psychological status using visual information. Such research has produced a comprehensive system, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Using this system to analyze facial anatomy, a theory was constructed about the mechanisms of the human visage and the emotions that arise when that visage is observed to visibly change.3 Although studies on emotional expression have previously distinguished facial categories, such as pleasure, sadness, surprise, rage, hate, contempt, and fear, recent research has tended to focus on facial research using FACS. Despite this, Russell claimed that the face provides only determinative information and does not offer information about underlying emotions.4,5 Hence, it is difficult to recognize all information by merely looking at a person's face. It is more difficult to understand psychological conditions due to a multitude of factors that includes facial expression and other relevant information. Thus, it would be of interest to investigate not only the role of facial expression but also the process of capturing complicated non-verbal visual information to intuit psychological status. To accomplish this, a diagram containing postural information as well as a personal body zone could be used to clarify the process of recognition in the activities of daily life. Additionally, it would seem that further investigation is needed to clarify the observer's tendency to absorb visual information and assess psychological status, although each person's unique way of capturing visual information is a variable, the results of which are just beginning to be discovered. It is possible that the unique individuality of a person may be reflected in a particular behavior that surfaces during absorption of visual information. The aim of the present paper was to examine the relationship between eye movement and the accompanying physiological index, as well as the correlation between eye movement and personality. In this way, we recognize and clarify those factors at play in capturing the visual information used to assess psychological status.