SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Ustün TB. The global burden of mental disorders. Am. J. Public Health 1999; 89: 13151318.
  • 2
    De Lucena D, Fernandes BS, Berk M et al. Improvement of negative and positive symptoms in treatment-refractory schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with memantine as add-on therapy to clozapine. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2009; 70: 14161423.
  • 3
    Buckley P, Miller A, Olsen J, Garver D, Miller DD, Csernansky J. When symptoms persist: clozapine augmentation strategies. Schizophr. Bull. 2001; 27: 615628.
  • 4
    De Oliveira GS, Cereser KM, Fernandes BS et al. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor in medicated and drug-free bipolar patients. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2009; 43: 11711174.
  • 5
    Gama CS, Andreazza AC, Kunz M, Berk M, Belmonte-de-Abreu PS, Kapczinski F. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neurosci. Lett. 2007; 420: 4548.
  • 6
    Palomino A, Vallejo-Illarramendi A, Gonzalez-Pinto A et al. Decreased levels of plasma BDNF in first-episode schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Schizophr. Res. 2006; 86: 321322.
  • 7
    Romano F, Elkis H. Tradução e Adaptação de um Instrumento de Avaliação Psicopatológica das Psicoses: a Escala Breve de Avaliação Psiquiátrica [article in Portuguese]. Versão Ancorada (BPRS-A). J. Bras. Psiquiatr. 1996; 45: 4349.
  • 8
    Guy W. ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Publication (ADM) 76-338. National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, MD, 1976; 218222.
  • 9
    Fernandes B, Gama CS, Massuda R et al. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is not associated with response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): a pilot study in drug resistant depressed patients. Neurosci. Lett. 2009; 453: 195198.
  • 10
    Marano CM, Phatak P, Vemulapalli UR et al. Increased plasma concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor with electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study in patients with major depression. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2007; 68: 512517.
  • 11
    De Lucena D, Fernandes BS, Kunz M et al. Lack of association between serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and improvement of schizophrenia symptoms in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of memantine as adjunctive therapy to clozapine. J. Clin. Psychiatry 2010; 71: 9192.
  • 12
    Fernandes BS, Gama CS, Kauer-Sant'Anna M, Lobato MI, Belmonte-de-Abreu PS, Kapczinski F. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar and unipolar depression: a potential adjunctive tool for differential diagnosis. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2009; 43: 12001204.
  • 13
    Kapczinski F, Fernandes BS, Kauer-Sant'Anna M, Gama CS, Yatham L, Berk M. The concept of staging in bipolar disorder: the role of BDNF and TNF-alpha as biomarkers. Acta Neuropsychiatrica 2009; 21: 272274.
  • 14
    Pan W, Banks WA, Fasold MB, Bluth J, Kastin AJ. Transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood-brain barrier. Neuropharmacology 1998; 37: 15531561.