• 1
    Raison CL, Miller AH. When not enough is too much: the role of insufficient glucocorticoid signaling in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Am. J. Psychiatry 2003; 160: 15541565.
  • 2
    Kaneko M, Yokoyama F, Hoshino Y et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in chronic schizophrenia: association with clinical features. Neuropsychobiology 1992; 25: 17.
  • 3
    Dewan MJ, Pandurangi AK, Boucher ML, Levy BF, Major LF. Abnormal dexamethasone suppression test results in chronic schizophrenic patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 1982; 139: 15011503.
  • 4
    Tandon R, Mazzara C, DeQuardo J et al. Dexamethasone suppression test in schizophrenia: relationship to symptomatology, ventricular enlargement, and outcome. Biol. Psychiatry 1991; 29: 953964.
  • 5
    Walder DJ, Walker EF, Lewine RJ. Cognitive functioning, cortisol release, and symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 2000; 48: 11211132.
  • 6
    Ritsner M, Maayan R, Gibel A, Strous RD, Modai I, Weizman A. Elevation of the cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in schizophrenia patients. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2004; 14: 267273.
  • 7
    Newcomer JW, Faustman WO, Whiteford HA, Moses JJA, Csernansky JG. Symptomatology and cognitive impairment associate independently with post-dexamethasone cortisol concentrations in unmedicated schizophrenic patients. Biol. Psychiatry 1991; 29: 855864.
  • 8
    Ritsner M, Gibel A, Maayan R et al. State and trait related predictors of serum cortisol to DHEA(S) molar ratios and hormone concentrations in schizophrenia patients. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2007; 17: 257264.
  • 9
    Venkatasubramanian G, Chittiprol S, Neelakantachar N, Shetty T, Gangadhar BN. Effect of antipsychotic treatment on Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and cortisol in schizophrenia: a longitudinal study. Schizophr. Res. 2010; 119: 131137.
  • 10
    Rupprecht R. Neuroactive steroids: mechanisms of action and neuropsychopharmacological properties. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2003; 28: 139168.
  • 11
    Debonnel G, Bergeron R, de Montigny C. Potentiation by dehydroepiandrosterone of the neuronal response to N-methyl-D-aspartate in the CA3 region of the rat dorsal hippocampus: an effect mediated via sigma receptors. J. Endocrinol. 1996; 150 (Suppl.): 3342.
  • 12
    Van Broekhoven F, Verkes RJ. Neurosteroids in depression: a review. Psychopharmacology 2003; 165: 97110.
  • 13
    Wen S, Dong K, Onolfo JP, Vincens M. Treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate increases NMDA receptors in hippocampus and cortex. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2001; 430: 373374.
  • 14
    Strous RD, Maayan R, Lapidus R et al. Increased circulatory dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate in first-episode schizophrenia: relationship to gender, aggression and symptomatology. Schizophr. Res. 2004; 71: 427434.
  • 15
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders, fourth edn. (DSM-IV). APA, Washington, DC, 1994; Türkçe çevirisi; Amerikan Psikiyatri Birliği: Mental Bozuklukların Tanısal ve Sayımsal El kitabı, Dördüncü Baskı (DSM-IV), Amerikan Psikiyatri Birliği, Washington DC 1994'ten çeviren E Köroğlu, Ankara, Hekimler Yayın Birliği, 2005; 141–142.
  • 16
    Overall JE, Gorham DR. The brief psychiatric rating scale. Pyschol. Rep. 1962; 10: 799812.
  • 17
    Soykan C. Institutional Differences and Case Typicality As Related to Diagnosis System Severity, Prognosis and Treatment. Yayımlanmamış Master Tezi, Ortadoğu Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Edebiyat Fakültesi Psikoloji Bölümü, Ankara, 1989.
  • 18
    Zhang XY, Zhou DF, Cao LY, Wu GY, Shen YC. Cortisol and cytokines in chronic and treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia: association with psychopathology and response to antipsychotics. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005; 30: 15321538.
  • 19
    Meltzer HY, Lee MA, Jayathilake K. The blunted plasma cortisol response to apomorphine and its relationship to treatment response in patients with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001; 24: 278290.
  • 20
    Kaneda Y, Fujii A, Ohmori T. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic schizophrenic patients long-term treated with neuroleptics. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2002; 26: 935938.
  • 21
    Brophy MH, Rush AJ, Crowley G. Cortisol, estradiol, and androgens in acutely ill paranoid schizophrenics. Biol. Psychiatry 1983; 18: 583590.
  • 22
    Gallagher P, Watson S, Smith MS, Young AH, Ferrier IN. Plasma cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr. Res. 2007; 90: 258265.
  • 23
    Di Michele F, Caltagirone C, Bonaviri G, Romeo E, Spalletta G. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone levels are strongly increased in schizophrenia. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2005; 39: 267273.
  • 24
    Wray NR, Visscher PM. Narrowing the boundaries of the genetic architecture of schizophrenia. Schizophr. Bull. 2010; 36: 1423.
  • 25
    Arvanov VL, Liang X, Schwartz J, Grossman S, Wang RY. Clozapine and haloperidol modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate- and non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission in rat prefrontal cortical neurons in vitro. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1997; 283: 226234.
  • 26
    Benes FM, Berretta S. GABAergic interneurons: implications for understanding schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2001; 25: 127.
  • 27
    Silver H, Knoll G, Isakov V, Goodman C, Finkelstein Y. Blood DHEAS concentrations correlate with cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients: a pilot study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2005; 39: 569575.
  • 28
    Morrison MF, Redei E, TenHave T et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and psychiatric measures in a frail, elderly residential care population. Biol. Psychiatry 2000; 47: 144150.
  • 29
    Ritsner MS, Gibel A, Ratner Y, Tsinovoy G, Strous RD. Improvement of sustained attention and visual and movement skills, but not clinical symptoms, after dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in schizophrenia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 2006; 26: 495499.
  • 30
    Young AH, Gallagher P, Porter RJ. Elevation of the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio in drug-free depressed patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 2002; 159: 12371239.
  • 31
    Dickmeis T. Glucocorticoids and the circadian clock. J. Endocrinol. 2009; 200: 322.
  • 32
    Papadimitriou A, Priftis KN. Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroimmunomodulation 2009; 16: 265271.
  • 33
    Johnson KL, Rn CR. The hipothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis in critical illness. AACN Clin. Issues 2006; 17: 3949.
  • 34
    Beishuizen A, Thijs LG. The immunoendocrine axis in critical illness: beneficial adaptation or neuroendocrine exhaustion? Curr. Opin. Crit. Care 2004; 10: 461467.
  • 35
    Young EA, Vazquez D, Jiang H, Pfeffer CR. Saliva cortisol and response to dexamethasone in children of depressed parents. Biol. Psychiatry 2006; 60: 831836.