Diversity in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: Case-based evidence
Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Volume 66, Issue 2, pages 153–156, March 2012
How to Cite
Pinho, J., Rocha, J., Rodrigues, M., Pereira, J., Maré, R., Ferreira, C., Lourenço, E. and Beleza, P. (2012), Diversity in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: Case-based evidence. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 66: 153–156. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02308.x
- Issue published online: 21 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 21 FEB 2012
- Received 23 December 2010; revised 12 October 2011; accepted 4 November 2011.
- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor
Antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) are identified in the form of immune-mediated encephalitis in which typical manifestations include neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, abnormal movements, dysautonomia and hypoventilation. The authors report two cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with different presentations and patterns of progression. The first patient presented with status epilepticus and later developed psychosis, pyramidal signs and diffuse encephalopathy. The second patient presented with acute psychosis followed a week later by seizures, dystonia, rigidity, oromandibular dyskinesias and dysautonomia. Possible mechanisms responsible for the clinical manifestations of this disease are discussed in light of recently described additional clinical and laboratory findings.