• encephalitis;
  • immune-mediated;
  • N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

Antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) are identified in the form of immune-mediated encephalitis in which typical manifestations include neuropsychiatric symptoms, seizures, abnormal movements, dysautonomia and hypoventilation. The authors report two cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with different presentations and patterns of progression. The first patient presented with status epilepticus and later developed psychosis, pyramidal signs and diffuse encephalopathy. The second patient presented with acute psychosis followed a week later by seizures, dystonia, rigidity, oromandibular dyskinesias and dysautonomia. Possible mechanisms responsible for the clinical manifestations of this disease are discussed in light of recently described additional clinical and laboratory findings.