• 1
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Ed, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR). APA, Washington, DC, 2000.
  • 2
    Marsh R, Maia TV, Peterson BS. Functional disturbances within frontostriatal circuits across multiple childhood psychopathologies. Am. J. Psychiatry 2009; 166: 664674.
  • 3
    Eddy CM, Rizzo R, Cavanna AE. Neuropsychological aspects of Tourette syndrome: a review. J. Psychosom. Res. 2009; 67: 503513.
  • 4
    Ozonoff S, Strayer DL, McMahon WM, Filloux F. Inhibitory deficits in Tourette syndrome: a function of comorbidity and symptom severity. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 1998; 39: 11091118.
  • 5
    Channon S, Robertson MM, Orth M, Crawford S. Tourette's syndrome (TS): inhibitory performance in adults with uncomplicated TS. Neuropsychology 2009; 23: 359366.
  • 6
    Khalifa N, von Knorring AL. Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders in a total population of children: clinical assessment and background. Acta Paediatr. 2005; 94: 16081614.
  • 7
    Hounie AG, do Rosario-Campos MC, Diniz JB et al. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in Tourette syndrome. Adv. Neurol. 2006; 99: 2238.
  • 8
    Muller SV, Johannes S, Wieringa B et al. Disturbed monitoring and response inhibition in patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and co-morbid obsessive compulsive disorder. Behav. Neurol. 2003; 14: 2937.
  • 9
    Bornstein RA. Neuropsychological correlates of obsessive characteristics in Tourette syndrome. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 1991; 3: 157162.
  • 10
    Albin RL, Mink JW. Recent advances in Tourette syndrome research. Trends Neurosci. 2006; 29: 175182.
  • 11
    Hollander E, Kim S, Braun A, Simeon D, Zohar J. Cross-cutting issues and future directions for the OCD spectrum. Psychiatry Res. 2009; 170: 36.
  • 12
    Mataix-Cols D, Wooderson S, Lawrence N, Brammer MJ, Speckens A, Phillips ML. Distinct neural correlates of washing, checking, and hoarding symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2004; 61: 564576.
  • 13
    Nedeljkovic M, Kyrios M, Moulding R et al. Differences in neuropsychological performance between subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aust. N. Z. J. Psychiatry 2009; 43: 216226.
  • 14
    Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A, Rosario MC, Pittenger C, Leckman JF. Meta-analysis of the symptom structure of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 2008; 165: 15321542.
  • 15
    Alsobrook JP II, Leckman JF, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Pauls DL. Segregation analysis of obsessive-compulsive disorder using symptom-based factor scores. Am. J. Med. Genet. 1999; 88: 669675.
  • 16
    Leckman JF, Pauls DL, Zhang H et al. Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in affected sibling pairs diagnosed with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 2003; 116B: 6068.
  • 17
    Robertson MM. Tourette syndrome, associated conditions and the complexities of treatment. Brain 2000; 123: 425462.
  • 18
    Hartston HJ, Swerdlow NR. Visuospatial priming and stroop performance in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuropsychology 1999; 13: 447457.
  • 19
    Sher KJ, Frost RO, Kushner M, Crews TM, Alexander JE. Memory deficits in compulsive checkers: replication and extension in a clinical sample. Behav. Res. Ther. 1989; 27: 6569.
  • 20
    Sher KJ, Frost RO, Otto R. Cognitive deficits in compulsive checkers: an exploratory study. Behav. Res. Ther. 1983; 21: 357363.
  • 21
    Nakao T, Nakagawa A, Nakatani E et al. Working memory dysfunction in obsessive–compulsive disorder: a neuropsychological and functional MRI study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 2009; 43: 784791.
  • 22
    Rosario-Campos MC, Miguel EC, Quatrano S et al. The Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS): an instrument for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions. Mol. Psychiatry 2006; 11: 495504.
  • 23
    Japanese WISC-III Publication Committee. Nihonban WISC-III Chinou Kensahou (Japanese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Ed.). Nihon Bunka Kagakusha, Tokyo, 1998.
  • 24
    Shinagawa F, Kobayashi S, Fujita K, Maekawa H. Japanese Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Nihon Bunka Kagakusha, Tokyo, 1990.
  • 25
    Lombardi WJ, Andreason PJ, Sirocco KY et al. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance following head injury: dorsolateral fronto-striatal circuit activity. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 1999; 21: 216.
  • 26
    Everett J, Lavoie K, Gagnon JF, Gosselin N. Performance of patients with schizophrenia on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 2001; 26: 123130.
  • 27
    Kongs SK, Thompson LL, Iverson GL, Heaton RK. WCST-64. PAR, Lutz, FL, 2000.
  • 28
    Golden CJ. Identification of brain disorders by the Stroop Color and Word Test. J. Clin. Psychol. 1976; 32: 654658.
  • 29
    Yamada S, Shirokizawa H, Sugano M et al. Effects of methylphenidate on the continuous performance test (CPT) of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Jpn. J. Dev. Disabil. 2004; 26: 8591 (in Japanese).
  • 30
    Leckman JF, Riddle MA, Hardin MT et al. The Yale global tic severity scale: initial testing of a clinician-rated scale of tic severity. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 1989; 28: 566573.
  • 31
    Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA et al. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1989; 46: 10061011.
  • 32
    Bornstein RA, Yang V. Neurological performance in medicated and unmedicated patients with Tourette's disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry 2001; 148: 468471.
  • 33
    Chamberlain SR, Blackwell AD, Fineberg NA, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ. The neuropsychology of obsessive compulsive disorder: the importance of failures in cognitive and behavioural inhibition as candidate endophenotypic markers. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 2005; 29: 399419.
  • 34
    de Mathis MA, Diniz JB, Shavitt RG et al. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics. CNS Spectr. 2009; 14: 362370.
  • 35
    Besiroglu L, Uguz F, Saglam M, Agargun MY, Cilli AS. Factors associated with major depressive disorder occurring after the onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder. J. Affect. Disord. 2007; 102: 7379.
  • 36
    Kano Y, Kono T, Shishikura K, Kuwabara H, Ohta M, do Rosario MC. Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in Japanese Tourette syndrome subjects. CNS 2010; 15: 296303.