• coercion;
  • inpatients;
  • patient participation;
  • patient satisfaction;
  • profession–patient relations

Aim:  To develop a standardized self-reporting questionnaire to evaluate patients' perceptions of their overall treatment in specific relation to the use of seclusion and/or restraint (SR) measures as part of the treatment program.

Methods:  A 17-item self-rating questionnaire was given to 56 patients with experience of SR-related treatment to develop a new scale, the Secluded/Restrained Patients' Perceptions of their Treatment (SR-PPT). Concurrent validity was examined against the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 Japanese Version (CSQ-8J). In addition, Patient burden induced by answering the SR-PPT was evaluated.

Results:  On factor analysis, two factors named as Cooperation with Staff (nine items) and Perceptions of SR (two items) were derived. Cronbach's coefficient alphas were 0.928 and 0.887, and correlation coefficients against the CSQ-8J were 0.838 and 0.609, respectively. Answering the SR-PPT was found to induce little burden on the patients.

Conclusion:  Adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity of the final version of the SR-PPT, which consists of 11 items, indicate that it is acceptable as a measurement scale. Use of this questionnaire will add the patient's view to the assessment of overall treatment involving SR.