• 1
    Busch AB, Shore MF. Seclusion and restraint: A review of recent literature. Harv. Rev. Psychiatry 2000; 8: 261270.
  • 2
    Soliday SM. A comparison of patient and staff attitudes toward seclusion. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 1985; 173: 282291.
  • 3
    Hammill K, McEvoy JP, Koral H, Schneider N. Hospitalized schizophrenic patient views about seclusion. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1989; 50: 174177.
  • 4
    Meehan T, Bergen H, Fjeldsoe K. Staff and patient perceptions of seclusion: Has anything changed? J. Adv. Nurs. 2004; 47: 3338.
  • 5
    Frueh BC, Knapp RG, Cusack KJ et al. Patients' reports of traumatic or harmful experiences within the psychiatric setting. Psychiatr. Serv. 2005; 56: 11231133.
  • 6
    Gaskin CJ, Elsom SJ, Happell B. Interventions for reducing the use of seclusion in psychiatric facilities: Review of the literature. Br. J. Psychiatry 2007; 191: 298303.
  • 7
    Huckshorn KA. Reducing seclusion restraint use in mental health settings: Core strategies for prevention. J. Psychosoc. Nurs. Ment. Health Serv. 2004; 42: 2233.
  • 8
    Noda T, Sugiyama N, Kawabata T, Hirata T, Ito H. Development of quality indicators to monitor seclusion and restraint of patients on the basis of official records maintained at psychiatric hospitals. Seishin Igaku 2009; 51: 989997 (in Japanese).
  • 9
    Korkeila JA, Tuohimaki C, Kaltiala-Heino R, Lehtinen V, Joukamaa M. Predicting use of coercive measures in Finland. Nord. J. Psychiatry 2002; 56: 339345.
  • 10
    Keski-Valkama A, Sailas E, Eronen M, Koivisto AM, Lonnqvist J, Kaltiala-Heino R. A 15-year national follow-up: Legislation is not enough to reduce the use of seclusion and restraint. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2007; 42: 747752.
  • 11
    Donabedian A. Evaluating the quality of medical care. Milbank Mem. Found. Q. 1966; 44 (Suppl): 166206.
  • 12
    Day JC, Bentall RP, Roberts C et al. Attitudes toward antipsychotic medication: The impact of clinical variables and relationships with health professionals. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2005; 62: 717724.
  • 13
    Priebe S, Katsakou C, Amos T et al. Patients' views and readmissions 1 year after involuntary hospitalisation. Br. J. Psychiatry 2009; 194: 4954.
  • 14
    Lasalvia A, Bonetto C, Tansella M, Stefani B, Ruggeri M. Does staff-patient agreement on needs for care predict a better mental health outcome? A 4-year follow-up in a community service. Psychol. Med. 2008; 38: 123133.
  • 15
    Priebe S, McCabe R, Bullenkamp J et al. Structured patient-clinician communication and 1-year outcome in community mental healthcare: Cluster randomised controlled trial. Br. J. Psychiatry 2007; 191: 420426.
  • 16
    Loh A, Simon D, Wills CE, Kriston L, Niebling W, Harter M. The effects of a shared decision-making intervention in primary care of depression: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Patient Educ. Couns. 2007; 67: 324332.
  • 17
    Veltkamp E, Nijman H, Stolker JJ, Frigge K, Dries P, Bowers L. Patients' preferences for seclusion or forced medication in acute psychiatric emergency in the Netherlands. Psychiatr. Serv. 2008; 59: 209211.
  • 18
    Kjellin L, Andersson K, Candefjord IL, Palmstierna T, Wallsten T. Ethical benefits and costs of coercion in short-term inpatient psychiatric care. Psychiatr. Serv. 1997; 48: 15671570.
  • 19
    Sorgaard KW. Patients' perception of coercion in acute psychiatric wards. An intervention study. Nord. J. Psychiatry 2004; 58: 299304.
  • 20
    Katsakou C, Priebe S. Outcomes of involuntary hospital admission: A review. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 2006; 114: 232241.
  • 21
    Wallsten T, Kjellin L, Lindstrom L. Short-term outcome of inpatient psychiatric care: Impact of coercion and treatment characteristics. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2006; 41: 975980.
  • 22
    Nguyen TD, Attkisson CC, Stegner BL. Assessment of patient satisfaction: Development and refinement of a service evaluation questionnaire. Eval. Program Plann. 1983; 6: 299313.
  • 23
    Svensson B, Hansson L. Patient satisfaction with inpatient psychiatric care. The influence of personality traits, diagnosis and perceived coercion. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 1994; 90: 379384.
  • 24
    Horvath AO, Greenberg LS. Development and validation of the Working Alliance Inventory. J. Couns. Psychol. 1989; 36: 223233.
  • 25
    Tracey TJ, Kokotovic AM. Factor structure of the working alliance inventory. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 1989; 1: 207210.
  • 26
    Ruggeri M, Nose M, Bonetto C et al. Changes and predictors of change in objective and subjective quality of life: Multiwave follow-up study in community psychiatric practice. Br. J. Psychiatry 2005; 187: 121130.
  • 27
    Overall JE, Gorham DR. The brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS): Recent developments in ascertainment and scaling. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 1988; 24: 9799.
  • 28
    American Psychiatric Association Task Force on DSM-IV. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders : DSM-IV. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, 1994.
  • 29
    Hansson L, Bjorkman T, Priebe S. Are important patient-rated outcomes in community mental health care explained by only one factor? Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 2007; 116: 113118.
  • 30
    McCabe R, Saidi M, Priebe S. Patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia. Br. J. Psychiatry Suppl. 2007; 50: s21s28.
  • 31
    Steinert T, Lepping P, Bernhardsgrutter R et al. Incidence of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric hospitals: A literature review and survey of international trends. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 2010; 45: 889897.
  • 32
    Smith GM, Davis RH, Bixler EO et al. Pennsylvania State Hospital system's seclusion and restraint reduction program. Psychiatr. Serv. 2005; 56: 11151122.