Generalized anxiety disorder, subthreshold anxiety and anxiety symptoms in primary headache
Article first published online: 21 JAN 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Volume 67, Issue 1, pages 41–49, January 2013
How to Cite
Lucchetti, G., Peres, M. F. P., Lucchetti, A. L. G., Mercante, J. P. P., Guendler, V. Z. and Zukerman, E. (2013), Generalized anxiety disorder, subthreshold anxiety and anxiety symptoms in primary headache. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 67: 41–49. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2012.02405.x
- Issue published online: 21 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 21 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 28 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 9 MAR 2012
- subthreshold anxiety
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between generalized anxiety disorder, subthreshold anxiety (SubAnx) and anxiety symptoms in the prevalence of primary headache.
This cross-sectional study evaluated 383 people from a Brazilian low-income community. One-year prevalence rates of migraine, chronic migraine and tension-type headache were calculated. Anxiety symptoms were then separated into the following groups (based on DSM-IV criteria): no anxiety criteria; one anxiety criterion; two anxiety criteria; and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The control group (no headaches) was compared with headache sufferers for each anxiety group using an adjusted model controlled for confounding factors.
GAD was present in 37.0% of participants and SubAnx in 16.6%. Those with SubAnx had a 2.28-fold increased chance of having migraine; 3.83-fold increased chance of having chronic migraine, a 5.94-fold increased chance of having tension-type headache and a 3.27-fold increased chance of having overall headache. Some anxiety criteria (irritability, difficulty with sleep, concentration problems, muscle tension and fatigue) had similar prevalence to International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) headache criteria such as unilateral pain and nausea for migraine and chronic migraine.
Headache sufferers seem to have a high prevalence of anxiety symptoms and SubAnx. In addition, the presence of two or more anxiety criteria (not necessarily fulfilling all the criteria for GAD) was associated with having a headache disorder.