Development and heterogeneity of macrophages and their related cells through their differentiation pathways
Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008
© 1996 Cambridge Philosophical Society
Volume 46, Issue 7, pages 473–485, July 1996
How to Cite
Takahashi, K., Naito, M. and Takeya, M. (1996), Development and heterogeneity of macrophages and their related cells through their differentiation pathways. Pathology International, 46: 473–485. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1827.1996.tb03641.x
- Issue published online: 12 DEC 2008
- Article first published online: 12 DEC 2008
- Received 1 February 1995. Accepted for publication 5 March 1996.
- colony-stimulating factors;
- dendritic cells;
- macrophage subpopulations;
- osteopetrotic mouse
Macrophages are a heterogeneous population differing In their site of location, morphology and function. They develop from hematopoletic stem cells originating In both fetal and bone marrow hematopolesls. In yolk sac and early hepatic hematopoiesls, primitive/fetal macrophages develop from hematopoletic stem cells, bypassing the stage of monocytic cells (monoblasts, promonocytes and monocytes), possess proliferatlve capacity and differentiate into resident macrophages in tissues in late ontogeny. Monocytic cells develop In hepatic hematopolesis after the development of primitive/ fetal macrophages, then move into the bone marrow in late ontogeny, forming a monocyte-derived macrophage population in tissues. Like monocytes, the monocyte-derived macrophages have no proliferative potential and are short-lived, whereas the resident macrophages are long-lived in tissue, possess proliferatlve capacity and can be sustained by self-renewal. In adult life, the bone marrow releases macrophage precursors (immature myeloid cells) and monocytes into peripheral blood, but normally not monoblasts or promono-cyts. The myeloid precursor cells migrate into tissues and differentiate into resident macrophages or related cells in situ due to macrophage differentiation or growth factors, such as M-CSF and GM-CSF, produced in situ and/or supplied Immorally. Monocytes, however, migrate into tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli and differentiate Into exudate macrophages. The distinct differentiation pathways of monocyte/macrophages, resident macrophages, other macrophage subpopulations, and macrophage-related cells are reviewed together with the heterogeneity of macrophage precursor cells.