A case of so-called inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT), occurring in the spleen of a 77-year-old woman, is reported. The spleen contained a well-circumscribed mass with central hemorrhage and necrosis. Histologically, spindle cells were dispersed in a background of abundant inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells. The cells possessed enlarged, sometimes twisted or irregularly folded, nuclei that contained vesicular chromatin, and small but distinct, centrally located nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells were diffusely positive for vimentin, and focally positive for follicular dendritic cell (FDC) markers (Ber-MAC-DRC for CD35 and CNA.42). The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was exclusively detected in the spindle cells by in situ hybridization analysis. The cells also expressed the latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) of EBV, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that the LMP-1 gene had a 30-bp deletion and three point mutations, although their significance remains controversial. Inflammatory pseudotumor is a descriptive term that encompasses several different entities, and recent investigations have revealed the existence of neoplastic entities among IPT. One of the neoplastic IPT, recently designated ‘IPT-like FDC tumor’, is characterized by proliferation of EBV-positive FDC and commonly occurs in the liver and spleen. Because such tumors are capable of recurrence and metastasis, it is important to consider the possibility of an IPT-like FDC tumor when making a diagnosis of a hepatic/splenic IPT-like lesion.