Xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XGI) is a well-recognized disease process in the kidney and gallbladder. However, involvement of the colon is extremely rare. On the other hand, it is important to recognize that clinically and radiologically, XGI could be misinterpreted as an infiltrative cancer. Recently the authors encountered a 38-year-old woman who presented with a submucosal mass-like lesion in the sigmoid colon. Radiological imaging had also suggested a possibility of sigmoid colon cancer as well as pelvic inflammatory disease or actinomycosis. Although XGI may rarely occur in the large bowel, it should be considered in patients with a colonic submucosal mass. In addition, it is important to make an intraoperative pathological diagnosis in order to avoid any excessive operative stress.