For the detection of chromosome translocations/chimeric genes and specific genetic abnormalities in soft tissue tumors, we conducted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on 280 cases of soft tissue and other tumors using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The detection rate of the FISH split-signal was 84% (129/154 cases) for the translocation-associated soft tissue tumors, such as Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, synovial sarcoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, clear cell sarcoma and so forth. Positive split-signals from EWSR1, SS18 and FOXO1A probes were detected in 3% (2/64) of various histological types of carcinoma, lymphoma, melanoma, meningioma and soft tissue tumors. In FISH using the INI1/CEP22 probe, the INI1 deletion signal was detected in 100% (9/9) of epithelioid sarcoma. In well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas, detection of MDM2 amplification signals in FISH using the MDM2/CEP12 probe were both as high as 85% (11/13) and 100% (13/13), respectively. In other adipocytic and non-adipocytic tumors requiring differentiation from these types, detection was only 13% (5/39), and CEP12 polysomy was frequently detected. As these results demonstrate the high sensitivity and specificity of FISH, we concluded FISH to be a useful pathological diagnostic adjunct for definite and differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.