High expression of ALDH1 and SOX2 diffuse staining pattern of oral squamous cell carcinomas correlates to lymph node metastasis
Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Volume 62, Issue 10, pages 684–689, October 2012
How to Cite
Michifuri, Y., Hirohashi, Y., Torigoe, T., Miyazaki, A., Kobayashi, J., Sasaki, T., Fujino, J., Asanuma, H., Tamura, Y., Nakamori, K., Hasegawa, T., Hiratsuka, H. and Sato, N. (2012), High expression of ALDH1 and SOX2 diffuse staining pattern of oral squamous cell carcinomas correlates to lymph node metastasis. Pathology International, 62: 684–689. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1827.2012.02851.x
- Issue published online: 24 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012
- Received 3 March 2012. Accepted for publication 9 July 2012.
- cancer stem cell;
- lymph node metastasis;
- oral squamous cell carcinoma;
One of the major factors involved in the prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients is metastasis. Recent progress in cancer stem-like cell/cancer-initiating cell (CSC/CIC) research indicates that CSCs are related to metastasis. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 – (ALDH1) and SRY-related HMG-box gene 2 (SOX2) have recently been shown to be putative CSC markers for several human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association of ALDH1 and SOX2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical staining of ALDH1, SOX2 and Ki67 was performed in 80 OSCC tissues. High expression rates of ALDH1 (2%–40%) were found to be related to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0017). Interestingly, we found that SOX2 staining could be classified into two patterns: (i) peripheral staining pattern; and (ii) diffuse staining pattern. The diffuse staining pattern showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). No correlation was found between Ki67 staining and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.4724). The ALDH1 positive staining rates in metastatic lymph nodes were higher than that in corresponding primary OSCC tissues. These results indicate that high expression rates of ALDH1 and SOX2 diffuse staining patterns might be novel prediction markers for OSCC lymph node metastasis.