SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Plouffe JF. Importance of atypical pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2000; 31 (Suppl 2): S359.
  • 2
    Arnold FW, Summersgill JT, Lajoie AS, Peyrani P, Marrie TJ et al. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Organization (CAPO) Investigators. A worldwide perspective of atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2007; 175: 108693.
  • 3
    Falguera M, Sacristan O, Nogues A, Ruiz-González A, García M et al. Nonsevere community-acquired pneumonia: correlation between cause and severity or comorbidity. Arch. Intern. Med. 2001; 161: 186672.
  • 4
    Marrie TJ. Empiric treatment of ambulatory community-acquired pneumonia: always include treatment for atypical agents. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 2004; 18: 82941.
  • 5
    Masia M, Gutierrez F, Padilla S, Soldán B, Mirete C et al. Clinical characterisation of pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens combining classic and novel predictors. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 2007; 13: 15361.
  • 6
    IMPACT working group. Recommendation for the empirical therapy of common infections. In HoPL, WongSSY (eds) Reducing bacterial resistance with IMPACT—Interhospital Multi-disciplinary Programme on Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 3rd edn. Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, 2005; 67.
  • 7
    Man SY, Lee N, Ip M, Antonio GE, Chau SS et al. Prospective comparison of three predictive rules for assessing severity of community-acquired pneumonia in Hong Kong. Thorax 2007; 62: 34853.
  • 8
    British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. BTS Guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults. Thorax 2001; 56 (Suppl.4): IV164.
  • 9
    Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, Bartlett JG, Campbell GD et al. IDSA/ATS guidelines for CAP in adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2007; 44: S2772.
  • 10
    Lee N, Rainer TH, Ip M, Zee B, Ng MH et al. Role of laboratory variables in differentiating SARS-coronavirus from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia within the first 72 h of hospitalization. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2006; 25: 76572.
  • 11
    Ko FW, Ip M, Chan PK, Fok JP, Chan MC et al. A 1-Year prospective study of the infectious etiology in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbations of COPD. Chest 2007; 131: 4452.
  • 12
    Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, Hanusa BH, Weissfeld LA et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997; 336: 24350.
  • 13
    Lim WS, Van Der Eerden MM, Laing R, Boersma WG, Karalus N et al. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax 2003; 58: 37782.
  • 14
    Charles PG, Whitby M, Fuller AJ, Stirling R, Wright AA et al.; Australian CAP Study Collaboration. The etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in Australia: why penicillin plus doxycycline or a macrolide is the most appropriate therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2008; 46: 151321.
  • 15
    Luna CM, Famiglietti A, Absi R, Videla AJ, Nogueira FJ et al. Community-acquired pneumonia: etiology, epidemiology, and outcome at a teaching hospital in Argentina. Chest 2000; 118: 134454.
  • 16
    Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Tenover FC, Yolken RH (eds). Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 8th edn. ASM Press, Washington D.C., 2003.
  • 17
    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, PA, 2004; M100S114.
  • 18
    Petitjean J, Vabret A, Gouarin S, Freymuth F. Evaluation of four commercial immunoglobulin G (IgG)- and IgM-specific enzyme immunoassays for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002; 40: 16571.
  • 19
    Beersma MF, Dirven K, Van Dam AP, Templeton KE, Claas EC et al. Evaluation of 12 commercial tests and the complement fixation test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies, with PCR used as the ‘gold standard. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2005; 43: 227785.
  • 20
    Persson K, Boman J. Comparison of five serologic tests for diagnosis of acute infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2000; 7: 73944.
  • 21
    Hermann C, Graf K, Groh A, Straube E, Hartung T. Comparison of eleven commercial tests for chlamydia pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G in asymptomatic healthy individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2002; 40: 16039.
  • 22
    Leung GM, Rainer TH, Lau FL, Wong IO, Tong A et al. Hospital Authority SARS Collaborative Group. A clinical prediction rule for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome in the emergency department. Ann. Intern. Med. 2004; 141: 33342.
  • 23
    Ngeow YF, Suwanjutha S, Chantarojanasriri T, Wang F, Saniel M et al. An Asian study on the prevalence of atypical respiratory pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2005; 9: 14453.
  • 24
    Miyashita N, Fukano H, Mouri K, Fukuda M, Yoshida K et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in Japan: a prospective ambulatory and hospitalized patient study. J. Med. Microbiol. 2005; 54: 395400.
  • 25
    Huang HH, Zhang YY, Xiu QY, Zhou X, Huang SG et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in Shanghai, China: microbial etiology and implications for empirical therapy in a prospective study of 389 patients. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 2006; 25: 36974.
  • 26
    Song JH, Oh WS, Kang CI, Chung DR, Peck KR et al. Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens Study Group. Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients in Asian countries: a prospective study by the Asian network for surveillance of resistant pathogens. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2008; 31: 10714.
  • 27
    Lieberman D, Schlaeffer F, Boldur I, Lieberman D, Horowitz S et al. Multiple pathogens in adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a one year prospective study of 346 consecutive patients. Thorax 1996; 51: 17984.
  • 28
    Lim WS, Macfarlane JT, Boswell TC, Harrison TG, Rose D et al. Study of community acquired pneumonia aetiology (SCAPA) in adults admitted to hospital: implications for management guidelines. Thorax 2001; 56: 296301.
  • 29
    Marston BJ, Plouffe JF, File TM Jr, Hackman BA, Salstrom SJ et al. Incidence of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. Results of a population-based active surveillance Study in Ohio. The Community-Based Pneumonia Incidence Study Group. Arch. Intern. Med. 1997; 157: 170918.
  • 30
    Lim WS, Macfarlane JT. A prospective comparison of nursing home acquired pneumonia with community acquired pneumonia. Eur. Respir. J. 2001; 18: 3628.
  • 31
    Bohte R, Van Furth R, Van Den Broek PJ. Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study among adults requiring admission to hospital. Thorax 1995; 50: 5437.
  • 32
    File TM Jr, Plouffe JF Jr, Breiman RF, Skelton SK. Clinical characteristics of chlamydia pneumoniae infection as the sole cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999; 29: 4268.
  • 33
    Kauppinen MT, Saikku P, Kujala P, Herva E, Syrjälä H. Clinical picture of community-acquired chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia requiring hospital treatment: a comparison between chlamydial and pneumococcal pneumonia. Thorax 1996; 51: 1859.
  • 34
    Fine MJ, Smith MA, Carson CA, Mutha SS, Sankey SS et al. Prognosis and outcomes of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1996; 275: 13441.
  • 35
    Ruiz M, Ewig S, Torres A, Arancibia F, Marco F et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Risk factors and follow-up epidemiology. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1999; 160: 9239.
  • 36
    Marrie TJ, Peeling RW, Reid T, De Carolis E; Canadian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Investigators. Chlamydia species as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia in Canada. Eur. Respir. J. 2003; 21: 77984.
  • 37
    Bartlett JG. Diagnostic test for etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 2004; 18: 80927.
  • 38
    Ruiz-Gonzalez A, Falguera M, Vives M, Nogués A, Porcel JM et al. Community-acquired pneumonia development of a bedside predictive model and scoring system to identify the aetiology. Respir. Med. 2000; 94: 50510.
  • 39
    Ishida T, Miyashita N, Nakahama C. Clinical differentiation of atypical pneumonia using Japanese guidelines. Respirology 2007; 12: 10410.
  • 40
    Brown RB, Iannini P, Gross P, Kunkel M. Impact of initial antibiotic choice on clinical outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of a hospital claims-made database. Chest 2003; 123: 150311.
  • 41
    Gleason PP, Meehan TP, Fine JM, Galusha DH, Fine MJ. Associations between initial antimicrobial therapy and medical outcomes for hospitalized elderly patients with pneumonia. Arch. Intern. Med. 1999; 159: 256272.
  • 42
    Robenshtok E, Shefet D, Gafter-Gvili A, Paul M, Vidal L et al. Empiric antibiotic coverage of atypical pathogens for community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized adults. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2008; 1: CD004418.
  • 43
    Johnstone J, Majumdar SR, Fox JD, Marrie TJ. Viral infection in adults hospitalized with community acquired pneumonia: prevalence, pathogens and presentation. Chest 2008; 134: 11418.
  • 44
    Lee N, Chan PK, Choi KW, Lui G, Wong B et al. Factors associated with early hospital discharge of adult influenza patients. Antivir Ther. 2007; 12: 5018.