SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agusti AG et al. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, GOLD Executive Summary. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2012; doi: 10.1164/rccm.201204-0596PP [Epub ahead of print].
  • 2
    Wouters EF, Creutzberg EC, Schols AM. Systemic effects in COPD. Chest 2002; 121(5 Suppl.): 127S30S.
  • 3
    Gan WQ, Man SF, Senthilselvan A et al. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Thorax 2004; 59: 57480.
  • 4
    Sinden NJ, Stockley RA. Systemic inflammation and comorbidity in COPD: a result of ‘overspill’ of inflammatory mediators from the lungs? Review of the evidence. Thorax 2010; 65: 9306.
  • 5
    Bon JM, Zhang Y, Duncan SR et al. Plasma inflammatory mediators associated with bone metabolism in COPD. COPD. 2010; 7: 18691.
  • 6
    Sevenoaks MJ, Stockley RA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammation and co-morbidity—a common inflammatory phenotype? Respir. Res. 2006; 7: 70.
  • 7
    Ding C, Parameswaran V, Udayan R et al. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers predict change in bone mineral density and resorption in older adults: a longitudinal study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008; 93: 19528.
  • 8
    Gillespie MT. Impact of cytokines and T lymphocytes upon osteoclast differentiation and function. Arthritis Res. Ther. 2007; 9: 103.
  • 9
    Teitelbaum SL. Osteoclasts: what do they do and how do they do it? Am. J. Pathol. 2007; 170: 42735.
  • 10
    Weitzmann MN, Pacifici R. The role of T lymphocytes in bone metabolism. Immunol. Rev. 2005; 208: 15468.
  • 11
    Udagawa N, Takahashi N, Akatsu T et al. Origin of osteoclasts: mature monocytes and macrophages are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts under suitable microenvironment prepared by bone marrow-derived stromal cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1990; 87: 72604.
  • 12
    Tai H, Miyaura C, Pilbeam CC et al. Transcriptional induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in osteoblasts is involved in interleukin-6-induced osteoclast formation. Endocrinology 1997; 138: 2372.
  • 13
    Kania DM, Binkley N, Checovich M et al. Elevated plasma levels of interleukin-6 in postmenopausal women do not correlate with bone density. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 1995; 43: 236.
  • 14
    Nuti R, Siviero P, Maggi S et al. Vertebral fractures in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the EOLO Study. Osteoporos. Int. 2008; 20: 98998.
  • 15
    Sabit R, Bolton CE, Edwards PH et al. Arterial stiffness and osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2007; 175: 125965.
  • 16
    Duckers JM, Evans BA, Fraser WD et al. Low bone mineral density in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respir. Res. 2011; 12: 101.
  • 17
    McEvoy CE, Ensrud KE, Bender E et al. Association between corticosteroid use and vertebral fractures in older men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 1998; 157: 7049.
  • 18
    Weinstein RS, Wan C, Liu Q et al. Endogenous glucocorticoids decrease skeletal angiogenesis, vascularity, hydration, and strength in aged mice. Aging Cell 2010; 9: 14761.
  • 19
    O'Brien CA, Jia D, Plotkin LI et al. Glucocorticoids act directly on osteoblasts and osteocytes to induce their apoptosis and reduce bone formation and strength. Endocrinology 2004; 145: 183541.
  • 20
    Jia D, O'Brien CA, Stewart SA et al. Glucocorticoids act directly on osteoclasts to increase their life span and reduce bone density. Endocrinology 2006; 147: 55929.
  • 21
    Celli BR, Thomas NE, Anderson JA et al. Effect of pharmacotherapy on rate of decline of lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from the TORCH study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008; 178: 3328.
  • 22
    Lapperre TS, Snoeck-Stroband JB, Gosman MM et al. Effect of fluticasone with and without salmeterol on pulmonary outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 2009; 151: 51727.
  • 23
    Spencer S, Karner C, Cates CJ et al. Inhaled corticosteroids versus long-acting beta(2)-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2011; (12)CD007033.
  • 24
    Criner GJ, Cordova F, Sternberg AL et al. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT): part I: lessons learned about emphysema. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2011; 184: 76370.
  • 25
    Bai P, Sun Y, Jin J et al. Disturbance of the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway and systemic inflammation in COPD patients with emphysema and osteoporosis. Respir. Res. 2011; 12: 157.
  • 26
    Graat-Verboom L, Smeenk FW, van den Borne BE et al. Risk factors for osteoporosis in Caucasian patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case control study. Bone 2012; 50: 12349.
  • 27
    Celli BR, MacNee W. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur. Respir. J. 2004; 23: 93246.
  • 28
    Dalby C, Polanowski T, Larsson T et al. The bioavailability and airway clearance of the steroid component of budesonide/formoterol and salmeterol/fluticasone after inhaled administration in patients with COPD and healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Respir. Res. 2009; 10: 104.
  • 29
    American College of Sports Medicine. The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1990; 22: 26574.
  • 30
    Jones A, Fay JK, Burr ML et al. Inhaled corticosteroid effects on bone metabolism in asthma and mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2002; (1)CD003537.
  • 31
    Halpern MT, Schmier JK, Van Kerkhove MD et al. Impact of long-term inhaled corticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density: results of a meta-analysis. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004; 92: 2017; quiz 207–8, 267.
  • 32
    Lehouck A, van Remoortel H, Troosters T et al. COPD and bone metabolism: a clinical update. Rev. Mal. Respir. 2010; 27: 123142.
  • 33
    Moermans C, Heinen V, Nguyen M et al. Local and systemic cellular inflammation and cytokine release in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cytokine 2011; 56: 298304.
  • 34
    Lee JS, Huh JW, Chae EJ et al. Predictors of pulmonary function response to treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J. Korean Med. Sci. 2011; 26: 37985.
  • 35
    Sin DD, Man SF, Marciniuk DD et al.; ABC (Advair, Biomarkers in COPD) Investigators. The effects of fluticasone with or without salmeterol on systemic biomarkers of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2008; 177: 120714.
  • 36
    Paggiaro PL, Dahle R, Bakran I et al. Multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of inhaled fluticasone propionate in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International COPD Study Group. Lancet 1998; 351: 77380.
  • 37
    Loppow D, Schleiss MB, Kanniess F et al. In patients with chronic bronchitis a four week trial with inhaled steroids does not attenuate airway inflammation. Respir. Med. 2001; 95: 11521.
  • 38
    Loke YK, Cavallazzi R, Singh S. Risk of fractures with inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Thorax 2011; 66: 699708.
  • 39
    Leech JA, Dulberg C, Kellie S et al. Relationship of lung function to severity of osteoporosis in women. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 1990; 141: 6871.