Background and objective: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) remains a life-threatening infection in patients with prolonged neutropenia. Few data are available on IPA in non-neutropenic patients without underlying immunocompromising conditions.
Methods: All non-neutropenic patients managed at the institution for a proven and probable IPA over the last 10 years were reviewed retrospectively, and the difference between non-neutropenic patients with and without underlying disease was investigated.
Results: Among 52 cases of IPA analysed here, 33 were histologically proven; 19 were probable. Forty-two (80.8%) patients had underlying diseases; 10 (19.2%) patients had no any underlying diseases. There is a significant difference in seasonal distribution among patients with underlying conditions (P = 0.026), but no seasonal difference was found in the other group (P = 0.622). The only significant difference in symptoms between the two groups was fever (P = 0.015). Radiological findings were non-specific in the two groups. Despite treatment, the overall crude mortality rate among 52 patients was 39%. The overall mortality rate in patients with underlying disease was 45%, while that in patients without underlying conditions was 11%. A Cox multivariate analysis showed that organ failure (hazard ratios: 8.739, 95% CI: 3.770–20.255; P = 0.000) was independently associated with overall mortality.
Conclusions: Clinical features of IPA are not well known in non-neutropenic patients, especially in those without underlying conditions. In this study, organ failure was associated with a lower rate of survival of non-neutropenic patients with IPA.