Various Australian and New Guinean species of the formicine ant genera Acropyga Roger, Camponotus Mayr, Echinopla Fr. Smith, Notonus Emery, Notostigma Emery, Polyrhachis Fr. Smith, Prolasius Forel, Pseudonotoncus Clark, Stigmacros Forel and Teratomyrmex McAreavey are discussed. Notoncus and Prolasius are recorded for the first time from New Guinea. Notoncus capitatus Forel, Stigmacros foreli Viehmeyer and S. fossulata Viehmeyer are reinstated from junior synonymy. Prolasius nitidissimus formicoides (Forel) and P. hemiflavus wilsoni McAreavey are raised to species. New synonymies (senior names listed first) are: Acropyga acutiventris Roger =A. moluccana australis Forel; Echinopla turneri Forel =E. turneri picticeps Forel; Notostigma carazzii (Emery) =N. podenzanai Emery; Prolasius convexus McAreavey =P. nigriventris McAreavey; P. flavicornis Clark =P. flavidiscus McAreavey =P. flavicornis minor McAreavey; and P. nitidissimus (André) =P. niger Clark =P. depressiceps similis McAreavey. Notostigma sanguinea Clark is transferred to Camponotus as C. johnclarki Taylor nom.n., and C. sanguineus McAreavey is renamed C. macareaveyi Taylor nom.n., both changes due to secondary homonymy. The aggregate name Pseudonotoncus (hirsutus) Clark is proposed to cover the 2 nominal species of that genus. The putative dolichoderine Turneria frenchi Forel is declared incertae sedis in family Formicidae. Biological and distributional notes are given, including information on the association of the pseudococcid Xenococcus annandalei Silvestri with Acropyga acutiventris.