Abstract The chemical factors influencing the selection of oviposition site by gravid females of various mosquito species have been the subject of numerous investigations. Recent studies have revealed this behaviour to be controlled by semiochemicals. Here we report studies on semiochemicals of egg origin and their effect on the ovipositional behaviour of Aedes aegypti. The compounds present in egg extracts of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were isolated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. They were then evaluated for their effect on ovipositional behaviour against gravid females of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes at different concentrations. Gravid female Ae. aegypti were found to be sensitive to all the identified compounds: 6-hexanolactone, methyl dodecanoate, dodecanoic acid, methyl tetradecanoate, tetradecanoic acid, methyl (Z)-9-hexadecenoate, methyl hexadecanoate (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl (Z)-9-octadecenoate, methyl octadecanoate (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. Among them, dodecanoic and (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acids showed significant positive ovipositional response at different concentrations whereas all the esters showed deterrent/repellent ovipositional effect.