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Larval morphology of Lixus cardui Olivier and Lixus filiformis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): biological control agents for scotch and musk thistles



Lixus cardui is a successful biocontrol agent against scotch thistle already introduced to Australia. Lixus filiformis is a potential biocontrol agent for musk thistles in native distribution areas in the Palearctic. Mature larvae of both Lixus Fabricius species collected from Onopordum acanthium and Carduus nutans are described, illustrated and comparative remarks presented.