There have been a number of guidelines for asthma treatment published throughout the world. However, childhood asthma guidelines must be developed in consideration of the background of the individual countries. The second version of the Japanese Pediatric Guideline for the Treatment and Management of Bronchial Asthma 2002 (JPGL 2002) was published by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JSPACI) in November 2002, and was popular among Japanese physicians. After the publication of the JPGL, the incidence of pediatric asthma deaths decreased in Japan. In JPGL 2005 the recommendations were re-edited based on Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and the JPGL 2002. In comparison to the GINA guidelines, the JPGL 2005 include a classification system of asthma severity, recommendations for long-term management organized by age, a special mention of infantile asthma, and an emphasis on prevention and early intervention.