Influence of smoking on human milk tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels at postpartum seventh day

Authors


Bahri Ermis, MD, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Karaelmas University, 67600 Zonguldak, Turkey. Email: bahriermis@gmail.com

Abstract

Background:  The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on human milk interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels at the postpartum seventh day.

Methods:  Forty-four mothers (age range: 21–34 years) were enrolled in the study. Mothers were interviewed and classified according to their smoking status into one of two groups: the smoking mothers (n= 21) and the nonsmoking mothers (n= 23).

Results:  There were no significant differences between study groups with respect to human milk interleukin-1β (P= 0.12) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels (P= 0.83). However, TNF-α levels were found to be significantly lower in the smoking mothers compared with the controls (P= 0.002).

Conclusion:  This study shows that maternal smoking during pregnancy affects the levels of TNF-α in milk. The protective effect of human milk against infections seems to be impaired in smoking mothers.

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