Japanese clinical guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents

Authors

  • Yuko Ishizaki,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Hidehiro Yasujima,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Kobe City Hospital Organization Kobe City Medical Center West Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Yoshito Takenaka,

    1. Takenaka Kids Clinic
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Akira Shimada,

    1. Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Fukuma Hospital, Fukutsu
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Katsumi Murakami,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Sakai Hospital Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Sakai
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Yoshimitsu Fukai,

    1. Division of Psychosomatic Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Fuchu
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Nario Inouwe,

    1. Inouwe Children's Clinic, Nakatu, Oita
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Takakazu Oka,

    1. Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Mitsue Maru,

    1. Division of International Nursing Development, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Rie Wakako,

    1. Department of Child Psychiatry, Toyota Municipal Development Center, Toyota, Aichi
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Miyako Shirakawa,

    1. Department of Psychiatry, Yokohama Camellia Hospital, Yokohama
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Mitsue Fujita,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Tsukuba Gakuen Hospital, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Yuri Fujii,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Yuko Uchida,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Moriguchi
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Yoshio Ogimi,

    1. Ogimi Clinic, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Yukiko Kambara,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Yao Tokusyukai General Hospital, Yao
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Akira Nagai,

    1. Department of General Pediatrics and Interdisciplinary Medicine, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Ryota Nakao,

    1. Department of Pediatrics, First Tohwakai Hospital
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    • Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents, Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics.

  • Hidetaka Tanaka

    1. Department of Pediatrics, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka
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Yuko Ishizaki, MD PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Fumizonocho 10-15, Moriguchi, Osaka 570-8506, Japan. Email: ishizaky@takii.kmu.ac.jp

Abstract

Chronic pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The prevalence of chronic pain in children is >30%. Because pain indicates emotional expression as well as the physiological reaction toward infection, injury, and inflammation, both physiological and psychological assessments are essential to determine primary interventions for chronic pain. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Pediatrics Task Force of clinical practice guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents compiled clinical evidence and opinions of specialists associated with the primary care of pediatric chronic pain in the Japanese ‘clinical guidelines for chronic pain in children and adolescents’ in 2009, which are presented herein. The guidelines consist of three domains: general introduction to chronic pain; chronic abdominal pain; and chronic headache. Each section contains information on the physiological mechanism, psychological aspects, assessment methods, and primary interventions for pediatric chronic pain. These guidelines are expected to help disseminate knowledge on primary interventions for chronic pain in children and adolescents.

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