Venous thrombosis is a well-known complication of nephrotic syndrome (NS), while arterial thrombosis is rare. We know of no reports of children with this complication. Here we report a case of 14-year-old girl with NS, who complicated with renal and cerebral infarctions resulting from arterial thrombosis. Urinary examination showed heavy proteinuria. She had intravascular dehydration. Serum albumin was 0.9 g/dL. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a low-attenuation area in the right kidney. Decreased blood flow in the right middle cerebral artery was observed on MRA and also on multi-detector-row head CT. Urokinase and heparin were given. Cerebral infarction was treated neuroprotectively by i.v. infusion of edaravone. Comprehensive assessment of intravascular dehydration and the coagulation–fibrinolysis system is needed to guide decisions concerning prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. Better understanding of NS and its risks, as well as the necessity of drug therapy, may help teenagers to accept and cooperate with treatment.