Background: Ribavirin-related anemia is a serious side-effect of the pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy used for hepatitis C, and may be cause for a reduction in ribavirin dose or even cessation of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation on ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in pediatric and young adult patients.
Methods: Twelve chronic hepatitis C patients ranging in age from 3 to 21 years (mean, 13.9 ± 5.1 years) who received pegylated interferon α-2b and ribavirin combination therapy were randomized to either the control group (n= 6) or EPA group (n= 6). Blood samples were collected before, and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks after treatment to measure clinical laboratory parameters.
Results: The reduction in hemoglobin levels of the EPA group was significantly ameliorated at 8 and 16 weeks when compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in plasma ribavirin concentrations between the two groups during the treatment. However, one patient in the control group had a reduction in ribavirin dose.
Conclusion: EPA supplementation prevented ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia during combination therapy with pegylated interferon α-2b and ribavirin in pediatric and young adult patients.