Stones in anomalous kidneys: Results of treatment by shock wave lithotripsy in 150 patients


Lutfi Tunc md, 38. Cad. Cukurambar mah. 3/21, Balgat, Ankara, Turkey. Email:


Objective:  To determine the efficacy of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in anomalous kidneys.

Methods:  From October 1990 to October 2002, 150 patients (93 men and 57 women) with anomalous urinary tracts, including 45 horseshoe kidneys, 57 duplex kidneys, 30 malrotated kidneys, 14 pelvic and four crossed ectopic kidneys were treated with SWL for urolithiasis at the Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. Shock wave lithotripsy was performed with Siemens Lithostar plus (Siemans, Erlanger, Germany) device and all procedures were carried under fluoroscopic control.

Results:  The mean shock wave number and intensity received by the patients was 3770 (range, 1380–4100) shocks and 18.4 (range, 16.1–19) kV per session, respectively. The minimum success rate was obtained in patients with lower calyceal (50%) followed by middle calyceal (60%) calculi. The stone-free rate decreased and the number of sessions per patient increased with increasing stone diameter (dm). In patients with a stone dm > 30 mm, only 34% could be stone-free, compared to a rate of 92% for calculi dm < 10 mm. The overall stone free rate at the third month was 68%. The best stone-free rates were obtained in patients with ureteral duplication (80.7%). The stone-free rates in horseshoe, malrotated, pelvic and crossed ectopic kidneys were found to be 66.7%, 56.7%, 57.2% and 25%, respectively.

Conclusion:  Shock wave lithotripsy might be an effective and minimally invasive treatment alternative in stone-bearing anomalous kidneys. The type of anomaly, stone burden and localization seem to be the main parameters effecting the treatment success.