• 1
    Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Javis WR. Guideline for prevention of surgical site infection. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1999; 20: 24778. (II)
  • 2
    The Committee of Japanese National Medical School Affiliated Hospitals. The Guideline for the Prevention of Hospital Infections, 2nd edn. (The committee of Japanese national medical school affiliated hospitals, ed.). Space Kikaku, Tokyo, 2004. (In Japanese.)
  • 3
    Naber KG, Bergman B, Bishop MC et al. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Working Group of the Health Care Office (HCO) of the European Association of Urology (EAU). EAU guidelines for the management of urinary and male genital tract infections. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Working Group of the Health Care Office (HCO) of the European Association of Urology (EAU). Eur. Urol. 2001; 40: 57688. (II)
  • 4
    Kanamaru S, Ogawa O, Terai A et al. Assessment of a protocol for prophylactic antibiotics to prevent perioperative infection in urological surgery: a preliminary study. Int. J. Urol. 2004; 11: 35563. (II)
  • 5
    Monden K. Prophylaxis of postoperative infections in the urological field. Urol. View 2004; 3: 5861. (In Japanese.) (III)
  • 6
    Matsukawa M, Kunishima Y, Takahashi S, Takeyama K, Tsukamoto T. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria and surgical site infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2001; 17: 327239. (II)
  • 7
    Yamamoto S, Munishima Y, Kanamaru S et al. A multi-center prospective study for antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent perioperative infections in urologic surgery. Hinyokika Kiyo 2004; 50: 67383. (In Japanese.) (II)
  • 8
    Richards C, Edwards J, Culver D, Emori TG, Tolson J, Gaynes R. National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Does using a laparoscopic approach to cholecystectomy decrease the risk of surgical site infection? Ann. Surg. 2003; 237: 35862. (II)
  • 9
    McCall JL, Sharples K, Jadallah F. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic with open appendectomy. Br. J. Surg. 1997; 84: 104550. (II).
  • 10
    Meltomaa SS, Makinen JL, Taalikka MO, Helenius HY. Incidence, risk factors and outcome of infection in a 1-year hysterectomy cohort: a prospective follow-up study. J. Hosp. Infect. 2000; 45: 21117. (II)
  • 11
    Takeyama K, Shimizu T, Mutoh M et al. Prophylactic antimicrobial agents in urologic laparoscopic surgery: 1-day versus 3-day treatments. J. Infect. Chemother. 2004; 10: 16871. (II)
  • 12
    Fahlenkamp D, Rassweiler J, Fornara P, Frede T, Loening SA. Complications of laparoscopic procedures in urology: experience with 2407 procedures at 4 German centers. J. Urol. 1999; 162: 76571. (II)
  • 13
    Chodak GW, Plaut ME. Systemic antibiotics for prophylaxis in urologic surgery: a critical review. J. Urol. 1979; 121: 6959. (I)
  • 14
    Childs SJ. Appropriate surgical prophylaxis in transurethral genitourinary surgery and potential reduction in nosocomial infections. Urology 1986; 27: 41520. (I)
  • 15
    da Silva FC. Prophylactic antibiotherapy in urological surgery. Infection 1992; 20 (Suppl 3): S2213. (II)
  • 16
    Cutajar CL. Norfloxacin prophylaxis for endoscopic urological surgery. Br. J. Urol. 1992; 69: 4214. (I)
  • 17
    Charton M, Mombet A, Gattegno B. Urinary tract infection prophylaxis in transurethral surgery; oral lomefloxacin versus parenteral cefuroxime. Am. J. Med. 1992; 92: S11820. (I)
  • 18
    Klimberg IW. A multicenter comparison of oral lomefloxacin versus parenteral cefotaxime as prophylactic agents in transurethral surgery. Am. J. Med. 1992; 92: S1215. (I)
  • 19
    Dellamonica P, Bernard E. Fluoroquinolones and surgical prophylaxis. Drugs 1993; 45 (Suppl 3): S10213. (I)
  • 20
    Klimberg IW, Malek GH, Cox CE et al. Single-dose oral ciprofloxacin compared with cefotaxime and placebo for prophylaxis during transurethral surgery. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1999; 43: 7784. (I)
  • 21
    Westenfelder M, Rosser K, Pelz K. Development of nosocomial and iatrogenic urinary tract infections (UTI) following urological interventions. A prospective clinical study. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 1987; 104: 5963. (II)
  • 22
    Janknegt RA. Prophylaxis in urological surgery. Infection 1992; 20 (Suppl 3): S21724. (I)
  • 23
    Appel RA, Flynn JT, Paris AM, Blandy JP. Occult bacterial colonization of bladder tumors. J. Urol. 1980; 124: 3456. (II)
  • 24
    Macdermott JP, Ewing RE, Smerville JF, Gray BK. Cephradine prophylaxis in transurethral procedures for carcinoma of the bladder. Br. J. Urol. 1988; 62: 1369. (I)
  • 25
    di Silverio ZF, Ferrone G, Carati I. Prophylactic chemotherapy with fosfomycin trometamol during transurethral surgery and urological manoeuvres. Results of a multicentre study. Infection 1990; 18 (Suppl 2): S98102. (II)
  • 26
    Amin M. Antibacterial prophylaxis in Urology: a review. Am. J. Med. 1992; 92: S11417. (III)
  • 27
    Ersev D, Dillioglugil O, Ilker Y, Simsek F, Akdas A. Efficacy of prophylactic gentamicin use in postoperative urinary tract infections after endoscopic procedures of the urinary tract. Urol. Int. 1992; 48: 4013. (I)
  • 28
    Naber KG, Hofstetter AG, Bruhl P, Bichler K, Lebert C, Working group Urinary Tract Infections' of the Paul Erlich Society for Chemotherapy, Working group ‘Urological Infections’ of the German Society for Urology. Guidelines for the perioperative prophylaxis in urological interventions of the urinary and male genital tract. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2001; 17: 3216. (II)
  • 29
    Badenoch DF, Murdoch DA, Tiptaft RC. Microbiological study of bladder tumors, their histology and infective complications. Urology 1990; 35: 58. (II)
  • 30
    Gasser TC, Wisard M, Frei R. Oral fleroxacin prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. J. Urol. 1996; 156: 1468. (I)
  • 31
    Dajani AS, Taubert KA, Wilson W et al. Prevention of bacterial endocarditis. JAMA 1997; 277: 1794801. (II)
  • 32
    Swedish Norwegian Consensus Group. Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery: summary of a Swedish Norwegian Consensus Conference. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 1998; 30: 54757. (I)
  • 33
    Delahaye F, Hosen B, McFadden E, Roth O, de Gevigney G. Treatment and prevention of infective endocarditis. Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 2002; 3: 13145. (III)
  • 34
    American Urological Association: American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Antibiotic prophylaxis for urological patients with total joint replacements. J. Urol. 2003; 169: 17967. (I)
  • 35
    Schneede P, Hofstetter AG, Naber KG et al. Arbeitskreis Infektologie, Deutscen Gesellschaft fur Urologie: European Association of Urology guidelines on urinary and male genital infection. Urologe A 2003; 42: 10412. (I)
  • 36
    Wagenlehner F, Stower HJ, Schneider BW, Naber KG, Lehn N. Influence of a prophylactic single dose of ciprofloxacin on the level of resistance of Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolones in urology. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 2000; 15: 20711. (II)
  • 37
    Grabe M. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in urology. Curr. Opin. Urol. 2001; 11: 815. (II)
  • 38
    Puppo P, Ricciotti G, Bozzo W, Introini C. Primary endoscopic treatment of ureteric calculi. A review of 378 cases. Eur. Urol. 1999; 36: 4852. (III)
  • 39
    Larsen EH, Gasser TC, Madsen PO. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in Urologic Surgery. Urol. Clin. North Am. 1986; 13: 591604. (III)
  • 40
    Rao PN, Dube DA, Weightman NC, Oppenheim BA, Morris J. Prediction of septicemia following endourological manipulation for stones in the upper urinary tract. J. Urol. 1991; 146: 95560. (III)
  • 41
    Higgins PM. Value of prophylactic antibacterial therapy in instrumentation of urinary tract. Br. Med. J. 1966; 1: 269. (III)
  • 42
    Taylor AL, Oakley N, Das S, Parys BT. Day case ureteroscopy: an observational study. BJU Int. 2002; 89: 1815. (II)
  • 43
    Trinchieri A, Mangiarotti B, Lizzano R. Use of levofloxacin in the antibiotic prophylaxis for diagnostic procedure in urology. Arch. Ital. Urol. Androl. 2002; 74: 339. (I)
  • 44
    Knopf HJ, Graff HJ, Schulze H. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in ureteroscopic stone removal. Eur. Urol. 2003; 44: 11518. (I)
  • 45
    Christiano AP, Hollowell CM, Kim J, Patel R, Bales GT, Gerber GS. Double-blind randomized comparison of single-dose ciprofloxacin versus intravenous cefazolin in patients undergoing outpatient endourologic surgery. Urology 2000; 55: 1825. (I)
  • 46
    McEntee GP, McPhail S, Mulvin D, Thomson RW. Single dose antibiotic prophylaxis in high risk patients undergoing transurethral prostatectomy. Br. J. Surg. 1987; 74: 1924. (I)
  • 47
    Mebust WK. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral surgery. J. Urol. 1993; 150: 17345. (I)
  • 48
    Grabe M. Antimicrobial agents in transurethral resection. J. Urol. 1987; 138: 24552. (I)
  • 49
    Hargreave T, Hindmarsh J, Elton R, Chisholm GD, Gould JC. Short-term prophylaxis with cefotaxime for prostatic surgery. Br. Med. J. 1982; 284: 100810. (I)
  • 50
    Ramsey E, Sheth N. Antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing prostatectomy. Urology 1983; 21: 3768. (I)
  • 51
    Hellsten S, Forsgren A, Bjork T, Grabe M. Use of ciprofloxacin in patients undergoing prostatic surgery. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 1989; 60S: S1047. (I)
  • 52
    Millar M, Inglis T, Ewing R, Clark P, Williams RE, Lacey RW. Double-blind study comparing aztreonam with placebo for prophylaxis of infection following prostatic surgery. Br. J. Urol. 1987; 60: 3458. (I)
  • 53
    Morris MJ, Golovsky D, Guinness MD, Maher PO. The value of prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatic resection: a controlled trial, with observation on the origin of postoperative infection. Br. J. Urol. 1976; 48: 47984. (I)
  • 54
    Gibbons RP, Stark RA, Correa RJ Jr, Cummings KB, Masson JT. The prophylactic use-or misuse-of antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy. J. Urol. 1978; 119: 3813. (I)
  • 55
    Williams M, Hole DJ, Murdoch RW, Ogden AC, Hargreave TB. 48-Hour cephradine and post-prostatectomy bacteriuria. Br. J. Urol. 1980; 52: 31115. (I)
  • 56
    Shah PJ, Williams G, Chaudary M. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis and prostatectomy. Br. J. Urol. 1981; 53: 33943. (I)
  • 57
    Nielsen OS, Maigaad S, Frimodt-Moller N, Madsen PO. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy. J. Urol. 1981; 126:602. (I)
  • 58
    Holl WH, Rous SN. Is antibiotic prophylaxis worthwhile in patients with transurethral resection of prostate? Urology 1982; 14: 436. (I)
  • 59
    Falkiner FR, Ma PT, Murphy DM, Cafferkey MT, Gillespie WA. Antimicrobial agents for the prevention of urinary tract infection in transurethral surgery. J. Urol. 1983; 129: 7668. (I)
  • 60
    Childs SJ, Wells WG, Mirelman S. Antibiotic prophylaxis for genitourinary surgery in community hospitals. J. Urol. 1983; 130: 3058. (I)
  • 61
    Grabe M, Forsgren A, Hellsten S. The effect of a short antibiotic course in transurethral prostatic resection. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 1984; 18: 3742. (I)
  • 62
    Qvist N, Christiansen HM, Ehlers D. Prophylactic antibiotics in transurethral prostatectomy. Urol. Res. 1984; 12: 2757. (I)
  • 63
    Botto H, Richard F, Mathieu F, Perreau AM, Camey M. Short-term prophylaxis with cefotaxime in prostatic surgery. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1984; 14S: S2315. (I)
  • 64
    Ferrie BG, Scott R. Prophylactic cefuroxime in transurethral resection. Urol. Res. 1984; 12: 27981. (I)
  • 65
    Finkelstein LH, Arsht DB, Manfrey SJ, Childs S. Ceftriaxon in the prevention of postoperative infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Am. J. Surg. 1984; 148: 1921.
  • 66
    Dorflinger T, Madsen PO. Antibiotic prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. Urology 1984; 24: 6436. (I)
  • 67
    Prokocimer P, Quazza M, Gibert C et al. Short-term prophylactic antibiotics in patients undergoing prostatectomy: report of a double-blind randomized trial with 2 intravenous doses of cefotaxime. J. Urol. 1986; 135: 604. (I)
  • 68
    Fair W. Perioperative use of carbenicillin in transurethral resection of prostate. Urology 1986; 27S: S1518. (I)
  • 69
    Murdoch DA, Badenoch DF, Gatchalian ER. Oral ciprofloxacin as prophylaxis in transurethral resection of the prostate. Br. J. Urol. 1987; 60: 1536. (I)
  • 70
    Charton M, Vallancien G, Brisset JM. Antibiotic prophylaxis of urinary tract infection after transurethral resection of the prostate: a randomized study. J. Urol. 1987; 138: 879. (I)
  • 71
    Shearman CP, Silverman SH, Johnson M et al. Single dose, oral antibiotic cover for transurethral prostatectomy. Br. J. Urol. 1988; 62: 4348. (I)
  • 72
    Conn IG, Moffat LE. Short-term cephradine prophylaxis in elective transurethral prostatectomy. J. Hosp. Infect. 1988; 11: 3735. (I)
  • 73
    Taylor EW, Lindsay G. Antibiotic prophylaxis in transurethral resection of the prostate with reference to the influence of preoperative catheterization. J. Hosp. Infect. 1988; 12: 7583. (III)
  • 74
    Stricker PD, Grant AB. Relative value of antibiotics and catheter care in the prevention of urinary tract infection after transurethral prostatic resection. Br. J. Urol. 1988; 61: 4947. (I)
  • 75
    Desai KM, Abrams PH, White LO. A double-blind comparative trial of short-term orally administrated enoxacin in the prevention of urinary infection after elective transurethral prostatectomy: a clinical and pharmacokinetic study. J. Urol. 1988; 139: 12324. (I)
  • 76
    Kjaergaard B, Petersen E, Lauridsen KG, Pettersen AS. Prophylactic one-dose treatment with clindamycin and gentamicin in transurethral prostatic resection. A double-blind placebo controlled study. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 1989; 23: 10913. (I)
  • 77
    Houle AM, Mokhless I, Sarto N, Elhiali MM. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral resection of the prostate: is it justifiable? J. Urol. 1989; 142: 31719. (I)
  • 78
    Slavis SA, Miller JB, Golji H, Dunshee CJ. Comparison of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in uncomplicated transurethral resection of the prostate. J. Urol. 1992; 147: 13036. (I)
  • 79
    Vitanen J, Talja M, Jussila E et al. Randomized controlled study of chemoprophylaxis in transurethral prostatectomy. J. Urol. 1993; 150: 171517. (I)
  • 80
    Hargreave TB, Botto H, Rikken GH et al. European collaborative study of antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral resection of the prostate. Eur. Urol. 1993; 23: 43743. (I)
  • 81
    Raz R, Almog D, Elhanan G, Shental J. The use of ceftriaxone in the prevention of urinary tract infection in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P). Infection 1994; 22: 3479. (I)
  • 82
    Gasser TC, Wisard M, Frei R. Oral fleroxacin prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. J. Urol. 1996; 156: 1468. (I)
  • 83
    Scholz M, Luftenegger W, Harmuth H, Wolf D, Holtl W. Single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in transurethral resection of the prostate: a prospective randomized trial. Br. J. Urol. 1998; 81: 8279. (I)
  • 84
    Wilson NI, Lewi HJ. Survey of antibiotic prophylaxis in British urological practice. Br. J. Urol. 1985; 57: 47882. (III)
  • 85
    Mebust WK, Holtgrewe HL, Cockett AT, Peters PC. Transurethral prostatectomy, immediate postoperative complications. A cooperative study of 13 participating institutions evaluating 3885 patients. J. Urol. 1989; 141: 2437. (III)
  • 86
    Platt R, Polk B, Murdock B, Rosner B. Mortality associated with nosocomial urinary-tract infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 1982; 307: 63742. (III)
  • 87
    Bryan C, Reynolds K. Hospital-acquired bacteremic urinary tract infection: epidemiology and outcome. J. Urol. 1984; 132: 4948. (III)
  • 88
    Berry A, Barratt A. Prophylactic antibiotic use in transurethral prostatic resection: a meta-analysis. J. Urol. 2002; 167: 5717. (I)
  • 89
    Qiang W, Jianchen W, MacDonald R, Monga M, Wilt TJ. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transurethral prostatic resection in men with preoperative urine containing less than 100 000 bacteria per ml: a systemic review. J. Urol. 2005; 173: 117581. (I)
  • 90
    Carey JM, Korman HJ. Transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate. Do enemas decrease clinically significant complications? J. Urol. 2001; 166: 825. (III)
  • 91
    Lindert KA, Kabalin JN, Terris MK. Bacteremia and bacteriuria after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. J. Urol. 2000; 164: 7680. (I)
  • 92
    Griffith BC, Morey AF, Al-Khan MM, Canby-Hagino E, Foley JP, Rozanski TA. Single dose levofloxacin prophylaxis for prostate biopsy in patients at low risk. J. Urol. 2002; 168: 10213. (II)
  • 93
    Cormio L, Berardi A, Callea N et al. Antimicrobial prophylaxis for transrectal prostatic biopsy: a prospective study of ciprofloxacin vs piperacillin/tazobactam. BJU Int. 2002; 90: 7002. (I)
  • 94
    Aron M, Rajeev TP, Gupta NP. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate: a randomized controlled study. BJU Int. 2000; 85: 6825. (I)
  • 95
    Shigemura K, Tanaka K, Yasuda M et al. Efficacy of 1-day prophylaxis medication with fluoroquinolone for prostate biopsy. World J. Urol. 2005; 23: 356-60. (I)
  • 96
    Hasegawa T, Shimomura T, Yamada H et al. Fetal septic shock caused by transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate: a case report. J. Jpn. Assoc. Infect. Dis. 2002; 76: 8937. (In Japanese.) (III)
  • 97
    Thompson PM, Pryor JP, Williams JP et al. The problem of infection after prostatic biopsy: the case for the transperineal approach. Br. J. Urol. 1982; 54: 73640. (III)
  • 98
    Madsen PO, Larsen EH, Dorflinger T. Infection complications after instrumentation of urinary tract. Urology 1985; 26: 1517. (III)
  • 99
    Packer MG, Russo P, Fair WR. Prophylactic antibiotics and Foley catheter use in transperitoneal needle biopsy of the prostate. J. Urol. 1984; 131: 6879. (I)
  • 100
    Tal R, Livne PM, Baniel J. Empirical management of urinary tract infections complicating transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. J. Urol. 2003; 169: 17625. (III)
  • 101
    Last PM, Harbison PA, Marsh JA. Bacteraemia after urological instrumentation. Lancet 1966; 1: 746. (III)
  • 102
    Sullivan NM, Sutter VL, Mims MM, Marsh VH, Finegold SM. Clinical aspects of bacteremia after manipulation of genitourinary tract. J. Infect. Dis. 1973; 127: 4955. (III)
  • 103
    Marier R, Valenti A, Mardi JA. Gram-negative endocarditis following cystoscopy. J. Urol. 1978; 119: 1347. (III)
  • 104
    Arpi M, Werner C, Timmermann B. Bacteremia following transurethral instrumentation. The predictive value of a serum bactericidal activity test. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 1986; 20:16976. (III)
  • 105
    Sullivan NM, Sutter VL, Carter WT, Attebery HR, Finegold SM. Bacteremia after genitourinary tract manipulation: bacteriological aspects and evaluation of various culture systems. Appl. Microbiol. 1972; 23: 11016. (III)
  • 106
    Quintaliani R, Klimek J, Cunha BA, Maderazo EG. Bacteraemia after manipulation of the urinary tract. The importance of pre-existing urinary tract disease and compromised host defences. Postgrad. Med. J. 1978; 54: 66871. (III)
  • 107
    Bavetta S, Olsha O, Fenely J. Spreading sepsis by cystoscopy. Postgrad. Med. J. 1990; 66: 7345. (III)
  • 108
    Schneede P, Hofstetter AG, Naber KG et al. Arbeitskreis Infektologie, Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Urologie; Leitinienkommission, Deutschen Urologie. American Urological Association Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons Antibiotic prophylaxis for urological patients with total joint replacements. J. Urol. 2003; 169: 17967. (III)
  • 109
    Rane A, Cahill D, Saleemi A, Montgomery B, Palfrey E. The issue of prophylactic antibiotics prior to flexible cystoscopy. Eur. Urol. 2001; 39: 21214. (I)
  • 110
    Shinagawa N, Mashita K, Iwai S, Yokoyama T, Takeyama H, Fujii M. The strategy of selection of antimicrobial prophylactic agents – A survey of the prophylaxis of postoperative infection. Chemotherapy 2001; 49: 5516. (In Japanese.)
  • 111
    Takeyama H, Hasegawa M, Manabe T et al. Administration of antimicrobial prophylactic agents – Questionnaire on postoperative infection prophylaxis. Chemotherapy 2001; 49: 6015. (In Japanese.)
  • 112
    Routledge PA. Pharmacokinetics in children. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 1994; 34 (Suppl A): S1924.
  • 113
    Sato Y. Antimicrobial chemotherapy for neonates. Pediatr. Infect. Immunol. 1997; 9: 438. (In Japanese.)
  • 114
    Sato Y. Administration plan of antimicrobials based on the evidence: administration plan for children (including neonates). Chemother. Field. 2003; 19: 57182. (In Japanese.)
  • 115
    Sunakawa K. Attention to children and neonates. In: Infect. Dis. Soc. Jpn. & Jpn. Soc. Chemother (ed.). Handbook for Antimicrobial Use, 1st edn. Kyowa Kikaku, Tokyo, 2001; 234. (In Japanese.)
  • 116
    Sunakawa K. Antimicrobial chemotherapy for pediatric infections. J. Jpn. Med. Assoc. 1985; 94S: S17889. (In Japanese.)
  • 117
    Sunakawa K, Sato Y. Antimicrobial use for neonates and premature infants. Therapy 2000; 82S: S15862. (In Japanese.)
  • 118
    Mizushima M. Antimicrobial Agents in Today's Medicine, 2004 (MizushimaH, Ed.) 2980, Nankodo, Tokyo, 2004. (in Japanese)
  • 119
    Abramowicz M. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Med. Lett. Drugs Ther. 1999; 41: 759.
  • 120
    Shinagawa N, Kamidono S, Arakawa S et al. A questionnaire survey on the theory of postoperative infection prophylaxis in urology. Jpn. J. Antibiot. 2002; 55: 50013. (In Japanese.)
  • 121
    Yamamoto S, Kanemaru S, Ogawa O et al. A questionnaire survey on the theory of antimicrobial prophylaxis. Hinyo Kiyo 2004; 50: 77986. (In Japanese.)
  • 122
    Thomas L, O'Connor Jr, Goldstein M. Topical perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for minor clean inguinal surgery. J. Am. Coll. Surg. 2002; 194: 40710.
  • 123
    Matsubara S, Ueoka K, Tanikaze S. The significance of day surgery in pediatric urology. Rinsyo Hinyo 1996; 50: 839942. (In Japanese.)
  • 124
    Stickland MD, Kirkpartrick CM, Begg EJ, Duffull SB, Oddie SJ, Darlow BA. An extended interval dosing model for gentamicin in neonates. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2001; 48: 88793.
  • 125
    Yamazaki Y, Yago R, Suzuki M, Toma H. Anti-reflux surgery of vesicoureteral reflux in children: Ideal procedure and perioperative management at present. Jpn. J. Pediatr. Surg. 2003; 39: 2049. (In Japanese.)
  • 126
    Terashima K, Sano K. Therapeutic plan and operation for megaureter. Risyo Hinyo 1994; 48S: S16876. (In Japanese.)
  • 127
    Herringer H, Bornhof C, Kuehn R. Antibiotic prophylaxis before extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy by single-shot application of azocillin. Chemioterapia 1987; 6 (Suppl 2): S6079. (I).
  • 128
    Pettersson B, Tiselius HG. Are prophylactic antibiotics necessary during extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy? Br. J. Urol. 1989; 63: 44952. (I)
  • 129
    Morimoto T, Hirano A, Ohkawa J et al. Clinical study on antimicrobial prophylaxis following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Hinyo Kiyo 1995; 41: 24551. (In Japanese.) (I)
  • 130
    Ilker Y, Turkeri LN, Korten V, Tarcan T, Akdas A. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in management of urinary tract stones by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: Is it necessary? Urology 1995; 46: 1657. (I)
  • 131
    Birkens AF, Hendriks AJ, Ezzel KE et al. The value of antibiotic prophylaxis during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the prevention of urinary tract infections in patients with urine proven sterile prior to treatment. Eur. Urol. 1997; 31: 305. (I)
  • 132
    Carton M, Brissert JM. Use of antibiotics in the conjunction with extracorporeal lithotripsy. Eur. Urol. 1990; 17: 1348. (III)
  • 133
    Katten S, Husain I, el-Faqih SR, Atassi R. Incidence of bacteremia and bacteriuria in patients with non-infection-related urinary stones undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J. Endourol. 1993; 7: 44951. (III)
  • 134
    Gasser TC, Frei R. Risk of bacteremia during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Br. J. Urol. 1993; 71: 1720. (III)
  • 135
    Raz Z, Zoabi A, Sudarsky M, Shental J. The incidence of urinary tract infection in patients without bacteriuria who underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. J. Urol. 1994; 151: 32930. (III)
  • 136
    Simmon D. Experience with 500 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy patients using a low-cost unit: The ‘Econolith’. J. Endourol. 1995; 9: 21518. (III)
  • 137
    Delineliotis CH, Giftopoulos A, Koutsokalis G, Rapitidis G, Kostakopoulos A. The necessity of prophylactic antibiotics during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 1997; 29: 51721. (III)
  • 138
    Dincel C, Ozdiler E, Ozenci H, Tazici N, Kozar A. Incidence of urinary tract infection in patients without bacteriuria undergoing SWL. Comparison of stone types. J. Endourol. 1998; 12: 13. (III)
  • 139
    Yilmaz E, Batislam E, Tuglu D et al. C-reactive protein in early detection of bacteremia and bacteriuria after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Eur. Urol. 2003; 43: 2704. (III)
  • 140
    Westh H, Knudsen F, Hedengram AM, Weischer M, Mogensen P, Andersen JT. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of kidney stones does not induce transient bacteremia: a prospective study. J. Urol. 1990; 144: 1516. (I)
  • 141
    Viscoli C, Bruzzi P, Castagnola E et al. Factors associated with bacteraemia in febrile, granulocytopenic cancer patients. The International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group (IATCG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Eur. J. Cancer 1994; 30: 4307. (I)
  • 142
    Masaoka T. Recommendations based on the evidence concerning antimicrobial use in the patients with febrile neutropenia. Int. J. Hematol. 1998; 68: S140. (In Japanese.) (I)
  • 143
    De Pauw BE, Deresinski SC, Feld R, Lane-Allman EF, Donnelly JP. Ceftazidime compared with piperacillin and tobramycin for the empiric treatment of fever in neutropenic patients with cancer. A multicenter randomized trial. The Intercontinental Antimicrobial Study Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 1994; 120: 83444. (I)
  • 144
    Ramphal R, Gucalp R, Rotstein C, Cimino M, Oblon D. Clinical experience with single agent and combination regimens in the management of infection in the febrile neutropenic patient. Am. J. Med. 1996; 100: S839. (II)
  • 145
    Cometta A, Calandra T, Gaya H et al. Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empiric therapy for fever in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. The International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche Maligne dell' Adulto Infection Program. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 1996; 40: 110815. (II)
  • 146
    Bodey GP, Jadeja L, Elting L. Pseudomonas bacteremia. Retrospective analysis of 410 episodes. Arch. Intern. Med. 1985; 145: 16219. (II)
  • 147
    Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP et al. From the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. J. Infect. Dis. 1990; 161: 38196. (II)
  • 148
    Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP et al. Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with unexplained fever. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis 1997; 25: 55173. (II)
  • 149
    Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP et al. Guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2002; 34: 73051. (I)
  • 150
    Bow EJ, Mandell LA, Louie TJ et al. Quinolone-based antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis in neutropenic patients: effect of augmented gram-positive activity on infectious morbidity. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. Ann. Intern. Med. 1996; 125: 18390. (II)
  • 151
    Cruciani M, Rampazzo R, Malena M et al. Prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones for bacterial infections in neutropenic patients: a meta analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1996; 23: 795805. (II)
  • 152
    Rotstein C, Bow EJ, Laverdiere M, Ioannou S, Carr D, Moghaddam N. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis for neutropenic cancer patients: benefit based on purpose and intensity of cytotoxic therapy. The Canadian Fluconazole Prophylaxis Study Group. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1999; 28: 33140. (II)
  • 153
    Kollef MH. Is there a role for antibiotic cycling in the intensive care unit? Crit. Care Med. 2001; 29: N13542. (II)
  • 154
    Gerding DN, Larson TA, Hughes RA, Weiler M, Shanholtzer C, Peterson LR. Aminoglycoside resistance and aminoglycoside usage; Ten years of experience in one hospital. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 1991; 35: 128490. (II)
  • 155
    Labarca J. Antibiotic cycling tested in nosocomial infections. Lancet 2000; 355: 9208. (II)
  • 156
    Masaoka T. Evidence-based recommendations for antimicrobial use in febrile neutropenia in Japan: executive summary. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2004; 39 (Suppl 1): S4952. (I)
  • 157
    The committee for clinical trials of Japanese Society for Cancer Therapy: Guidelines for appropriate use of G-CSF -5. Therapeutic administration for febrile patient. Int. J. Clin. Oncol. 2001; 6 (Suppl): S89. (In Japanese.) (I)
  • 158
    Ozer H, Armitage JO, Bennett CL et al. Update of recommendations for the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors: evidence-based, clinical practice guidelines. J. Clin. Oncol. 2000; 18: 355885. (I)
  • 159
    Yamazaki K, Kumamoto Y, Tsukamoto T, Hirose T. Prophylactic therapy for neutropenia in cancer chemotherapy. Chemotherapy 1989; 37: 83847. (In Japanese.) (III)
  • 160
    Matsumoto T, Takahashi K, Tanaka M, Kumazawa J. Infectious complications of combination anticancer chemotherapy for urogenital cancers. Int. Urol. Nephrol. 1999; 31: 714. (III)
  • 161
    Kotake T, Usami M, Miki T et al. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (lenograstim) on chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with urothelial cancer. J. Urol. 1999; 6: 617. (III)
  • 162
    Counsell R, Pratt J, Williams MV. Chemotherapy for germ cell tumours: prophylactic ciprofloxacin reduces the incidence of neutropenic fever. Clin. Oncol. 1994; 6: 2326. (II)