Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate the value of preoperative power Doppler sonography with 3D reconstruction (3D-PDS) for diagnostics of extraprostatic extension of prostate cancer.
Patients and Methods: In the prospective study we examined 146 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Prior to surgery, each patient underwent 3D-PDS, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and digital rectal examination (DRE). Furthermore, we determined the prostate volume, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, PSA density (PSAD), and Gleason score. The risk of locally advanced cancer was assessed using Partin tables. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of these diagnostic procedures. We plotted the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated the areas under the curves (AUC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the significant predictors of extraprostatic tumor extension. Based on this we developed diagnostic nomograms maximizing the probability of accurate diagnosis.
Results: The significant differences between patients with organ confined and locally advanced tumor (based on the postoperative assessment) were observed in the PSA levels (P < 0.014), PSAD (P < 0.004), DRE (P < 0.037), TRUS (P < 0.003), and 3D-PDS (P < 0.000). The highest AUC value of 0.776 (P < 0.000) was found for 3D-PDS. The observed AUC value for TRUS was 0.670 (P < 0.000) and for PSAD 0.639 (P < 0.004). In multivariate regression analysis, the PSAD, preoperative Gleason score, and 3D-PDS finding were identified as significant preoperative predictors of extraprostatic tumor extension.
Conclusion: Our data suggest that the 3D-PDS is a valuable preoperative diagnostic examination to identify locally advanced prostate cancer. Therefore, it can be used to maximize the probability of the accurate diagnosis of extraprostatic tumor extension.