• 1
    Setchell BP. Brooks DE. Anatomy, vasculature, innervation and fluids of the male reproductive tract. In: KnobilE, NeillJD (eds). The Physiology of Reproduction. Raven Press, New York, 1988; 753836.
  • 2
    Aribarg A, Kenkeerati W, Vorapaiboonsak V, Leepipatpaiboon S, Farley TM. Testicular volume, semen profile and serum hormone levels in infertile Thai males. Int. J. Androl. 1986; 9: 17080.
  • 3
    Comhaire FH, de Kretser A, Farley TM. The significance of physical characteristics and laboratory investigations for the diagnosis of male infertility. Int. J. Androl. 1987; 7: S1933.
  • 4
    Takihara H, Cosentino MJ, Sakatoku J, Cockett ATK. Significance of testicular size measurement in andrology. II. Correlation of testicular size with testicular function. J. Urol. 1987; 137: 41619.
  • 5
    Bujan L, Mieusset R, Mansat A, Moatti JP, Mondinat C, Pontonnier F. Testicular size in infertile men: relationship to semen characteristics and hormonal blood levels. Br J Urol. 1989; 64: 6327.
  • 6
    Sobowale OB, Akiwumi O. Testicular volume and seminal fluid profile in fertile and infertile males in Ilorin, Nigeria. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 1989; 28: 15561.
  • 7
    Lenz S, Thomsen JK, Giwercman A, Hertel NT, Hertz J, Skakkebæk NE. Ultrasonic texture and volume of testicles in infertile men. Hum. Reprod. 1994; 9: 87881.
  • 8
    Lenz S, Giwercman A, Elsborg A et al. Ultrasonic testicular texture and size in 444 men from the general population: correlation to semen quality. Eur. Urol. 1993; 24: 2318.
  • 9
    Arai T, Kitahara S, Horiuchi S, Sumi S, Yoshida K. Relationship of testicular volume to semen profiles and serum hormone concentrations in infertile Japanese males. Int. J. Fertil. 1998; 43: 407.
  • 10
    Prader A. Testicular size: assessment and clinical importance. Triangle 1966; 7: 2403.
  • 11
    Takihara H, Sakatoku J, Fujii M, Nasu T, Cosentino MJ, Cockett ATK. Significance of testicular size measurement in andrology. I. A new orchidometer and its clinical application. Fertil. Steril. 1983; 39: 83640.
  • 12
    Rivkees SA, Hall DA, Boepple PA, Crawford JD. Accuracy and reproducibility of clinical measures of testicular volume. J. Pediatr. 1987; 110: 91417.
  • 13
    Behre HM, Nashan D, Nieschlag E. Objective measurement of testicular volume by ultrasonography: evaluation of the technique and comparison with orchidometer estimates. Int. J. Androl. 1989; 12: 395403.
  • 14
    Paltiel HJ, Diamond DA, Di Canzio J, Zurakowski D, Borer JG, Atala A. Testicular volume: comparison of orchidometer and US measurements in dogs. Radiology 2002; 222: 11419.
  • 15
    Sakamoto H, Saito K, Oohta M, Inoue K, Ogawa Y, Yoshida H. Testicular volume measurement: comparison of ultrasonography, orchidometry, and water displacement. Urology 2007; 69: 1527.
  • 16
    Miskin M, Bain J. Use of diagnostic ultrasound in the evaluation of testicular disorders. In: BainJ, HafezESE, BarwinBN (eds). Progress in Reproductive Biology, Vol. 3. Andrology, Basic and Clinical Aspects of Male Reproduction and Infertility. S. Karger, Basel, 1978; 11730.
  • 17
    World Health Organization. The influence of varicocele on parameters of fertility in a large group of men presenting to infertility clinics. Fertil. Steril. 1992; 57: 128993.
  • 18
    Sigman M, Jarow JP. Ipsilateral testicular hypotrophy is associated with decreased sperm counts in infertile men with varicoceles. J. Urol. 1997; 158: 6057.
  • 19
    Trum JW, Gubler FM, Laan R, van der Veen F. The value of palpation, varicoscreen contact thermography and colour Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of varicocele. Hum. Reprod. 1996; 11: 12325.
  • 20
    Cornud F, Amar E, Hamida K, Hélénon O, Moreau JF. Ultrasound findings in male hypofertility and impotence. Eur. Radiol. 2001; 11: 212636.
  • 21
    World Health Organization. WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm–Cervical Mucus Interaction. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999.
  • 22
    Shiraishi K, Takihara H, Kamiryo Y, Naito K. Usefulness and limitation of punched-out orchidometer in testicular volume measurement. Asian J. Androl. 2005; 7: 7780.
  • 23
    Sakamoto H, Saito K, Ogawa Y, Yoshida H. Testicular volume measurements using Prader Orchidometer versus ultrasonography in patients with infertility. Urology 2007; 69: 15862.
  • 24
    Abdel-Razek A, Ali A. Developmental changes of bull (Bos taurus) genitalia as evaluated by caliper and ultrasonography. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 2005; 40: 237.