Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Immunotherapy is relatively effective against RCC. However, the response rate is approximately 15–20%. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are necessary. Recently, molecular mechanisms responsible for the proliferation of RCC are identified, and molecular targeted therapy is developed. Bevacizumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, axitinib, temsirolimus, everolimus are promising molecular targeted therapeutic agents for metastatic RCC, and will be used widely in clinics in the near future. In addition, combination therapy with molecular targeted therapy and other therapies including immunotherapy may also be developed soon.