Committee members: Takaaki Ito (Tamura Clinic, Tokyo, Japan), Mineo Takei (Harasanshin Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan), Shing-Hwa Lu (Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan), Yao-Chi Chuang (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan), Young Ho Kim (SoonChunHyang University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea), Jae Yup Hong (Cha University School of Medicine, BunDang, Korea)
Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder syndrome
Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009
© 2009 The Japanese Urological Association
International Journal of Urology
Volume 16, Issue 7, pages 597–615, July 2009
How to Cite
Homma, Y., Ueda, T., Tomoe, H., Lin, A. T., Kuo, H.-C., Lee, M.-H., Lee, J. G., Kim, D. Y., Lee, K.-S. and The interstitial cystitis guideline committee (2009), Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder syndrome. International Journal of Urology, 16: 597–615. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2009.02326.x
- Issue published online: 17 JUL 2009
- Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009
- Received 9 April 2009; accepted 13 May 2009.
- interstitial cystitis;
- bladder hypersensitivity;
A clinical guideline and algorism for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder syndrome has been developed by a group of East Asian urologists as a revised form of the Japanese guideline for interstitial cystitis. The guideline defines interstitial cystitis (IC) as a disease of the urinary bladder diagnosed by 3 requirements; 1) a characteristic complex of lower urinary tract symptoms, 2) bladder pathology such as Hunner's ulcer and bladder bleeding after overdistension, and 3) exclusions of confusable diseases. The characteristic symptom complex is termed as hypersensitive bladder syndrome (HBS), which is defined as bladder hypersensitivity, usually associated with urinary frequency, with or without bladder pain. For the definite diagnosis of IC, cytoscopy or hydrodistension is crutial; HBS is the diagnosis when IC is suspected but not confirmed by the 3 requirements. Numerous therapeutic options are available; however, most of them lack in high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapies. Etiology of IC are multifactorial; the interaction among nervous, immune and endocrine factors forms a vicious cycle, provocating and maintaining inflammatory reactions in the bladder. The inclusion and efficacy criteria for clinical trials should be standardized to enhance the clinical research for this disabling disease, which has proved to be more prevalent than previously believed.